Neodymium magnet, also known as NdFeB magnet, is a tetragonal crystal formed by neodymium, iron, and boron (Nd2Fe14B). In 1982, Sumitomo Sasakawa found a neodymium magnet. The magnetic energy product (BHmax) of this magnet is larger than that of the SmCo magnet, which was the largest material in the world at that time. Later, Sumitomo special metals successfully developed the powder metallurgy process, and General Motors successfully developed the melt spinning process, which can prepare NdFeB magnets. This kind of magnet is a permanent magnet which is next to the absolute zero holmium magnet, and it is also the most commonly used rare earth magnet. NdFeB magnets are widely used in electronic products, such as hard disks, mobile phones, headphones, and battery-powered tools.
Neodymium iron boron magnet is divided into sintered neodymium iron boron and bonded neodymium iron boron. Bonded neodymium iron boron is magnetic and corrosion-resistant in all directions. However, sintered neodymium iron boron is easy to corrode and needs to be coated on its surface, generally including zinc plating, nickel, environmental zinc, environmental nickel, nickel copper-nickel, environmental nickel, etc. The sintered NdFeB is generally divided into axial magnetization and radial magnetization, which are determined according to the required working face.
Process Step of Neodymium magnet
1. Raw material preparation and pretreatment
Process Description: the raw materials are pre-treated by weighing, crushing, breaking and derusting.
Process equipment: steel cutting machine, drum polishing machine, etc.
Process Description: the raw materials such as praseodymium neodymium, pure iron, and ferroboron after pretreatment are proportioned, added into the vacuum smelting furnace, and the belt is thrown after high-temperature smelting under the protection of argon. The results show that the product has uniform composition, high crystal orientation, good microstructure consistency and avoids the formation of λ – Fe.
Process equipment: vacuum melting furnace
3. hydrogen burst
Process Description: The hydrogen explosion (HD) process is to use the hydrogen absorption characteristics of rare-earth intermetallics to place the neodymium iron boron alloy in the hydrogen environment. Hydrogen enters the alloy along with the neodymium rich phase thin layer so that it expands, bursts and breaks, and cracks along with the neodymium rich phase layer, ensuring the integrity of the main phase grains and the neodymium rich intergranular phase. HD technology makes the Nd-Fe-B casting very loose, which greatly improves the efficiency of airflow mill and reduces the production cost.
Process equipment: Vacuum hydrogen treatment furnace
4. flour milling
Process Description: airflow grinding is to use the high-speed collision of the material itself to pulverize, without abrasion and pollution to the inner wall of the grinding chamber, so the powder can be prepared efficiently.
Process equipment: air mill
5. Forming orientation
Process Description: the function of orientation is to turn the easy magnetization direction c axis of disorderly oriented powder particles in the same direction, so as to obtain the maximum remanence. The main purpose of pressing is to crush the powder into a certain shape and size while maintaining the grain orientation obtained in the magnetic field orientation as much as possible. We design and use the forming magnetic field press and isostatic press for the secondary forming. For the special-shaped magnet, we use special mold tooling to directly form. After sintering, the magnet can be put into use only with a little surface treatment, which greatly saves the cost of materials and subsequent processing.
Process equipment: magnetic field press, isostatic press
Process Description: sintering is a simple and cheap way to change the microstructure of materials and improve the magnetic properties of materials. Sintering is the final forming process of materials, which has a very important influence on the density and microstructure of magnets.
Process equipment: vacuum sintering furnace
Process Description: the Nd-Fe-B magnets obtained after sintering are all blanks, which need further machining to obtain products of different sizes, sizes, and shapes. Because of its brittleness and poor mechanical properties, NdFeB magnets can only be ground and machined.
Process equipment: surface grinder, double face grinder, chamfering machine
8. Surface treatment
Process Description: surface treatment of various shapes of rare earth permanent magnets, such as electrophoresis, zinc plating, nickel, nickel copper-nickel, and phosphating, to ensure the appearance and corrosion resistance of products.
9. Inspection and packaging of finished products
Process Description: to test all kinds of magnetic properties, corrosion resistance, high-temperature performance, etc. of the products, and pack them after reaching the standard, so as to meet the needs of customers.
AISEN MAGNETS focused on the development and manufacturing of a Neodymium magnet, has more than 10 years of manufacturing experience in producing various sizes, different shapes, and surface coating. Over 45 different grades of neodymium magnet (strong magnet) widely used in many industries.
Our Production line including vacuum melting, Jet mill, Isostatic press, vacuum sintering, machining, and magnetization. Our annual design output is 1000tons, currently, the output is 800tons. Our experienced engineers work closely with the customer to find out the best possible solutions to meet your requirements.
Top 3 Self Driving Car Companies to Watch out in 2020
Many organizations are working on developing self-driving cars and hardware for autonomous cars of all types.
In this race to build a completely self-driving car, some companies are further in terms of real-world testing and practical experience than others.
We will have a look at all the top 3 self-driving car companies in the world.
Top 3 Autonomous Vehicle Companies
On the basis of the number of vehicles testing and the number of kilometers driven, Waymo tops the list with over 32 million kilometers driven on the road.
Their cars are equipped with advanced cameras, LiDAR, and radar sensors along with a microphone that detects sirens from emergency vehicles
Currently, Waymo is testing is the prototype of fully driverless SAE Autonomy Level 4 vehicles in Phoenix and Arizona.
Waymo has recently set up additional testing facilities in Michigan and California to test its cars in winter conditions.
The next on the list is Tesla.
Tesla is putting enormous efforts to develop a fully autonomous vehicle.
Although Tesla has excluded the Light Detection and Ranging(LIDAR), Tesla instead prefers ultrasonic, radar, and 2D cameras for autonomous operations.
The company has till now collected data from 600,000 Tesla’s with having collectively driven more than 3.2 billion kilometers world-wide.
One can’t deny the fact that Tesla has built up a level of experience with some auto-pilot features of SAE level 2.
Reports state that their prototyping vehicles have already reached SAE level 5.
Argo AI is an independent startup that started in 2017, with a $1 billion investment from Ford Motor Company. The company has also attracted a $2.6 billion investment from Volkswagen.
Argo AI today is testing over 100 vehicles in almost 6 cities of the United States.
Technically it’s still an independent venture. Unlike other manufacturers, AgroAi doesn’t foresee producing its own cars. Rather Ford and VW want Argo AI to manufacture self-driving car technology for other companies starting with service-based firms like the Robo-taxis.
There are quite few other companies that are promisingly working on developing a self-driving car like the ones Baidu and GM cruise developed.
Even startups like Cruise Automation, Tu Simple, and Zoox are working towards developing AI for autonomous vehicles. E-learning platforms like Udacity has already launched their courses on self-driving cars that teach how to make one.
While completely autonomous vehicles won’t become mainstream in the next few years, Waymo, Tesla, and Argo AI are making significant advances in the self-driving car market.
With improvements in IoT technologies, strides toward fully autonomous vehicles are sure to follow.
As IoT technology continues to improve, strides toward fully autonomous vehicles are sure to follow.
[Solved]Mac Starts to Prohibitory Symbol After macOS Big Sur Update
macOS Big Sur will be the next version of Mac OS, announced at WWDC 2020. It is again named after the landscape in California but skips the macOS 10 version to macOS 11. According to the macOS Big Sur preview from Apple, the new features mainly sit in the new control center, interface and notification center as well as improved apps such as Safari, Messages and Maps.
However, the new OS doesn’t always bring good news. Here is a list of macOS 11 known issues and fixes. In this article, we will specifically discuss the Mac booting into a prohibitory symbol on the screen after macOS Big Sur update.
What does it mean when your Mac boots to a prohibitory symbol?
When a circle with a line cross it appears on your Mac’s monitor instead of a login screen or desktop, it is very likely that your Mac doesn’t support running macOS Big Sur. Even though the OS can be successfully downloaded on the startup disk, the relevant hardware is unable to install the OS nor launch it for use. It is a very typical problem people encounter when they update their Mac computers.
What Macs are compatible with macOS 11 Big Sur?
It is recommended to check the system requirements before you upgrade your Mac, especially before a major OS version upgrade. Some models can run macOS Catalina but are not necessarily compatible with macOS Big Sur.
macOS 11 Big Sur can be running on Macs including:
- MacBook models from early 2015 or later
- MacBook Air/Pro models from 2013 or later
- Mac mini models from 2014 or later
- Mac Pro models from 2013 or later
- iMac models from 2014 or later
- iMac Pro models
By checking the Mac’s hardware information, you can go to Apple logo and About This Mac to know your Mac model.
How to fix the prohibitory problem issue?
Now you know macOS Big Sur is not the right OS to run on your Mac, but how to get rid of the downloaded macOS 11 files and restore the Mac? Don’t panic. The steps are very easy.
Step 1: Boot your Mac into Recovery Mode.
You need to start or restart your Mac and immediately press down Command, Option and R keys together. Release the keys until you see a loading screen. The booting process will be a lot slower than usual. Then you will be led to the OS X Utilities or macOS Utilities window.
Step 2: Back up files from the Mac.
If you are afraid of data loss, you can use Target Disk Mode or data recovery software to get the important files off the Mac first.
Step 3: Reinstall OS
You can choose to format the hard drive first in Disk Utility and reinstall OS. Also, you can directly reinstall OS by selecting Reinstall OS X or macOS and clicking Continue. You just need to follow the wizard to finish the reinstallation.
Before you update to a newer OS, do remember to check the compatibility first in case you will boot to a prohibitory symbol during the installation. If the issue is happening, you can easily restore the Mac to a bootable state. macOS 11 Big Sur is a beta now and will be released to public in fall 2020, so it is recommended to upgrade after it is officially released if your Mac is compatible.
7 Advantages Of A Dedicated Server
- Improved Reliability and Control
Many organizations looking for superior reliability and seamless company operations often go for nothing less than a dedicated server. This is because dedicated servers offer unmatched reliability with all the server resources dedicated to the company tasks and workload. This means employees can work on internal applications seamlessly while customers access specific apps without facing any downtimes. Such is critical for companies working on mission-critical applications.
- Backup Servers
While disruptions may be inevitable in the modern world, most companies will want to keep them on the minimum. You, however, need to have safety and backup measures in place should the worst happen. This is particularly in the case of a power outage, floods, and a security incident, among other incidences. However, a dedicated server makes it possible to set up an off-site backup system where all data is backed up immediately and efficiently. This means you get operations back up and running within the shortest time possible, hence minimal disruptions. Such reliability and resilience are only possible with a dedicated backup server.
- High-Volume And Web Traffic Servers
A dedicated server is your best solution for websites and apps looking to handle tons of traffic at one go. These servers are designed to handle web-based workloads with heavy spikes, periodic, and on-demand loads that might be too much for a cloud-based server. Only a dedicated server can guarantee you of continued availability, uptime, and resources even when traffic is at its peak. That said, it would be wise to pay a little more for the peace of mind and guarantee that everything will be working optimally.
- SaaS Applications
Companies dealing with software-as-a-service and B2B applications get better support on dedicated servers as compared to other types of servers available today. In addition to its unrivaled performance and uptime, a dedicated server offers total control over its resources. This guarantees the SaaS users of optimal performance with little to no downtimes.
- Video Streaming And Conferencing
With more and more companies/organizations adopting a unified form of communications, many are switching to communications-as-a-service. This service makes it easier for employees and staff to hold video conferences from various departments. However, only a dedicated server is capable of handling and providing the bandwidth required to offer such a service. Video streaming and conferencing can be a little too demanding on shared server resources; another reason a dedicated server is better designed to handle such heavy loads.
- I/O Intensive Databases And Big Databases
Most applications and processes built on big I/O databases, including Microsoft SQL, Oracle, and MySQL, require a server with unlimited resources to perform optimally. Only a dedicated server is presumably capable of handling such intensive input/output databases and big data. With big data, and especially IoT (internet of things) on the rise, and streaming data running on continual calculations, more and more companies are looking for more control in the form of customizable software/configurations to suit their workloads. Only a dedicated server offers such versatility.
Visit www.intergrid.com.au for more information.
- Sensitive Data On Highly-Regulated Industries
While cloud security has improved on public domains and especially on shared cloud resources, most organizations find it almost impossible to operate under such. One of the reasons for this is the fact that the organization can only run only on a dedicated server, and nothing less. It thus would have to comply with such requirements to be able to operate.
With numerous risks arising from running on a cloud/shared hosting server, most organizations aren’t willing to take such risks. Some of the most commonly known issues associated with shared resources include data leaks and access configuration errors, most of which are too costly for many organizations. On the other hand, a dedicated server provides your trusted support staff and team members with all access privileges, with the organization required to ensure optimal information security.
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