I’ve spent the vast majority of my life studying the human mind. It all began in my childhood when I first came across a book by Oliver Sacks. The book was titled “The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat”. Oliver Sacks was a neurologist and after reading his book, I remember having the urge to become one myself. However, as time went on, I realized that his approach to his patients was different when compared to other neurologists.
His study of patient’s subjective phenomenological experiences, his obsession with the deeper philosophical picture, and the attention to detail that he paid to perception and reality was very similar to that of the approach generally taken by psychiatrists. Sacks was more than a neurologist. He was also a doctor of the soul. His work went beyond the brain and traversed into the mind. Thanks to him, and many others, my love for studying the human experience began and eventually culminated into a career in philosophy and psychiatry.
Philosophy (love of wisdom) is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence. The scope of philosophy generally consists of three overarching parts; 1) Epistemology (the theory of knowledge); 2) Ontology or Metaphysics (the theory of being or reality); and 3) Axiology (the theory of values).
To further dissect modern philosophy, it’s often helpful to split western philosophy into “Anglo-American philosophy” (or analytical philosophy) which deals with concepts such as agency, mind, person, linguistics, etc, and “Continental Philosophy” which deals with phenomenology (structure of subjective experience), existentialism (‘existence’ ahead of ‘essence’) and hermeneutics (a set of techniques for analyzing the meaning of discourse) – which all generally tend to put people first and therefore apply well to mental health – which is my other area of expertise (Ricoeur’s hermeneutics, for example, contains a thorough analysis of Freud’s ideas; Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology offers a detailed account of psychopathology, and existentialism produced its own critique of Freud).
Both Anglo-American philosophy and Continental philosophy have a growing concern with ‘the self’ and their models should be seen as complementary when applying it to psychiatry. Therefore, the scope of philosophy within psychiatry lies within its ability to address the more conceptual problems of the field. Psychiatry (healer of the ‘soul’) is a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental illness/disease/disorder, emotional disturbance and abnormal behaviours.
Three ways in which philosophy is utilized within psychiatry range from overall “Weltanschauung” (scheme of life or general philosophy/religion) to the various branches of philosophy (i.e. the ethical, epistemological, jurisprudential, phenomenological, political & metaphysical – among others), to the more detailed conceptual analytic concerns (e.g. use of Mental Healthcare Act 17 of 2002 in a South African context to define “mental illness/disorder”).
It therefore comes with no surprise that psychiatrists claim a very special expertise in the study of mind. The philosophy of mind should thus be, uniquely, their philosophy. Conversely, given the immensely diverse range of abnormal mental phenomena, philosophers of mind should be uniquely intrigued with what psychiatrists deal with on a day-to-day basis. One of philosophy of mind’s most infamous problems, “the mind-body problem”, is a major part of the mental health topic, in the form of the differences and similarities between mental illness and bodily illness. The philosophy of mind also covers a diverse range of other topics critically important in mental health that are known as ‘philosophical psychopathology’.
Philosophy of mind, moreover, overlaps with and even underpins, topics in the philosophy and ethics of mental health: e.g. ‘folk’ psychology, the unconscious, the status of psychoanalysis, rationality, and practical reasoning, and the core notions of actions and agency underpinning our very concepts of the disorder. These interactions highlight the fact that philosophy of mind is crucially important for mental health practice and research. But in all these areas, too, mental health practice and research are also crucially important to philosophy.
Together, psychiatry and philosophy form a mutually beneficial, symbiotic, relationship. As a psychiatry medical officer, currently pursuing a masters degree in the philosophy and ethics of mental health, I come into close contact with the human mind via a first-person, subjective, phenomenological perspective, as well as via third-person, objective, clinical encounters that also involves the study of neural correlates in the form of brain scans and EEGs.
Over the years, I’ve come to realize that studying the pathological manifestations of the mind can provide some of the most informative explanations and deepest understandings of the mind itself. Psychiatrists and mental health practitioners work at the very interface between mind and body and show just how difficult (both theoretically and practically) the mind-body problem really is. I do not have the answer – but I do believe that by only studying minds in their “normal” states, we fail to utilize the important resource that is “madness”.
Whether you’re a dualist, monist, pluralist, functionalist, illusionist, behaviorist, physicalist, idealist (the list goes on and on), if you are not considering the various abnormal mental phenomena that the human mind is capable of experiencing, then you’ve made a tremendously uninformed conclusion. Any atypical state of mind is an absolutely valuable asset for the study of the mind.
What becomes apparent when we look at our experience of mind from a more holistic point of view, is that our mind is not solely dependent on our brains. We are embodied beings. We are also embedded into an environment that we have to continuously enact upon. We also have extended our cognition via the scientific and technological tools at our disposal. We should no longer pigeonhole our search for the mind by only looking within. We also need to look outward. Brains are fundamentally a part of our cognitive repertoire, however they are not solely responsible for our conscious experiences.
Even when we observe the brain as a statistical organ, functioning with Bayesian-like principles, it becomes abundantly clear that we are dynamic processes that function within a dynamic cosmos. Understanding how we are able to compute our own existence was never going to be an easy endeavor. When it comes to understanding consciousness and the mind, we have to involve as many branches of knowledge as possible, whether it be science, philosophy, or even religion.
The quest to conquer the mind will require a cumulative culmination of collaborative encounters. We may never figure out the mind-body problem, and that’s okay. I still enjoy the absurdness of our obsession to find the solution.
That being said, I will be launching a podcast dedicated to understanding the human mind in both its physiological and pathological form. I will be joined by numerous experts in very diverse fields (linguistics, anthropology, neuroscience, sociology, psychology, etc…) as we discuss common mental health debates e.g. psychiatry vs anti-psychiatry, big pharma vs the user voice movement, evidence-based medicine vs values-based practice, etc.
We will also be covering the deeper topics in the philosophy of mind e.g. nature of reality, perception, morality, free-will, and consciousness. I hope that this in-depth philosophical probe into the nature of the mind will help us get even closer to the mind-body solution. So, please, join me on this adventure as we go on a consciousness-raising journey through the mind!
Arslan Fazal is a student of the Aust Abbottabad University of Science and Technology. He started his graduation in 2016 and graduated in 2020. I’m a professional article and blog writer, has written dozens of content on different topics and worked with professionals all over the globe. Feel free to contact me for any assistance. [email protected]
How to Pick the Right Diabetes Doctor. Tips for Finding the Right Endocrinologist.
Diabetes is an infection that happens when your blood glucose, additionally called glucose, is excessively high. Blood glucose is your primary wellspring of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a chemical made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be utilized for energy. Now and again your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t utilize insulin well. Glucose then, at that point stays in your blood and doesn’t arrive at your cells.
Symptoms of diabetes
Indications shift from one individual to another. The beginning phases of diabetes have not very many side effects. You may not realize you have the illness. Yet, harm May as have now be occurring to your eyes, your kidneys, and your cardiovascular framework. Normal indications include:
- Extreme hunger.
- Extreme thirst.
- Frequent urination.
- Unexplained weight loss.
- Fatigue or drowsiness.
- Blurry vision.
If blood sugars are extremely high, people can develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). This is a very dangerous complication of uncontrolled diabetes.
People with DKA might have:
- Nausea or vomiting more than once.
- Deeper, faster breathing.
- The smell of nail polish remover coming from your breath.
- Weakness, drowsiness, trembling, confusion, or dizziness.
- Uncoordinated muscle movement.
The single most important thing you can do is control your blood sugar level. You can do this by eating right, exercising, maintaining a healthy weight, and, if needed, taking oral medicines or insulin.
- Diet: Your diet should include lots of complex carbohydrates (such as whole grains), fruits, and vegetables. It’s important to eat at least 3 meals per day and never skip a meal. Eat at about the same time every day. This helps keep your insulin or medicine and sugar levels steady. Avoid empty calories, such as foods high in sugar and fat, or alcohol.
- Consult to diabetes specialist: A diabetes specialist is called an endocrinologist. Endocrinologists specialize in the glands of the endocrine (hormone) system. The pancreas is the gland involved in diabetes. The pancreas produces insulin, and problems with insulin are what managing your diabetes is about.
- Exercise: Exercising helps your body use insulin and lower your blood sugar level. It also helps control your weight, gives you more energy, and is good for your overall health. Exercise also is good for your heart, your cholesterol levels, your blood pressure, and your weight
- Maintain a healthy weight: Losing excess weight and maintaining a healthy body weight will help you in 2 ways. First, it helps insulin work well in your body. Second, it will lower your blood pressure and decrease your risk for heart disease.
- Take your medicine: If your diabetes can’t be controlled with diet, exercise, and weight control, your diabetes doctor may recommend medicine or insulin. They also help your body use the insulin it makes more efficiently. Some people need to add insulin to their bodies with insulin injections, insulin pens, or insulin pumps. Always take medicines exactly as your doctor prescribes. Description: Write an article about diabetes and how to pick good diabetes doctor.
Types of Diabetes
Diabetes occurs when your body doesn’t produce any insulin. It’s sometimes called juvenile diabetes because it’s usually discovered in children and teenagers, but it may appear in adults, too.
Diabetes occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or doesn’t use the insulin as it should. In the past, doctors thought only adults were at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, an increasing number of children in the United States are now being diagnosed with the disease
Physical Therapy ( Huntington New York)
Active recuperation Huntington New York infection is an uncommon, dominatingly acquired, neurodegenerative condition brought about by a cytosine, adenine and guanine fragment rehash extension in the Huntingtin quality. Huntington’s sickness has a commonness of six to 13 for every 100,000 in the general population1; a 2012 meta-investigation announced the overall pervasiveness of HD was 2.71 per 100,000 (95% certainty span: 1.55–4.72).2 It transcendently influences the cerebrum, causing brokenness and demise of medium spiked striatal projection neurons and hence disturbance of corticostriatal pathways with resultant disability of cognizance, engine work and behavior.1 These debilitations bring about diminishing autonomy in exercises of day by day living and nature of life3,4 even from moderately right off the bat in the illness.
Helpful exercise mediations are a promising space of exploration in neurodegenerative infections. Tending to engine and psychological weaknesses in neurodegeneration may give a drawn out valuable impact to defer illness movement, expand practical capacities and keep up freedom over a more extended period. Loss of autonomous portability and care reliance have been demonstrated to be significant indicators of nursing home confirmations. Creating mediations that work with free living and techniques to oversee indications is desperately required.
Regardless of the potential for physiotherapy and exercise intercessions, which might be given by physiotherapists, practice coaches, or other medical services faculty, to help individuals with HD, there is little proof to propose that individuals with HD regularly allude for non-intrusive treatment. This might be owing to the restricted logical help for the viability of physiotherapy and exercise intercessions. The Physiotherapy Working Gathering of the European Huntington Infection Organization (EHDN) fostered a Physiotherapy Direction Record in 2009. An orderly writing search was led to sum up the accessible proof preceding this date, with the view to furnishing specialists with data and proposals for physiotherapy principles of care for individuals with HD. This Direction Archive, notwithstanding, depended to a great extent on well-qualified assessment and the restricted accessible writing at that point, which included few for the most part clear examinations. Resulting in the distribution of the Direction Record, the EHDN bunch created treatment-based orders to manage clinical dynamic over the existing course of the illness.
In the previous seven years, there has been a huge expansion in the number and nature of physiotherapy and exercise concentrates in HD. These examinations have gone from assessment of momentary exercise programs, computer game home mediations, just as inpatient multidisciplinary recovery programs. Studies have used both quantitative and subjective appraisals, and likewise, there is a developing assemblage of text based references supporting activity and physiotherapy in this populace. While the EHDN Direction Document19 and ensuing treatment-based groupings were a significant initial step to give data about understanding administration in this generally uncommon infection, we are currently at a point where more thorough clinical rules can be created. Critically, the treatment-based characterizations, and the proof on the side of related intercessions, require point by point approval.
We looked for past or as of now enrolled precise surveys on the subject of physiotherapy and exercise in HD in the Cochrane and JBI Data set of Deliberate Audits and Execution Reports (JBISRIR), PROSPERO, the World Wellbeing Association (WHO) Global Clinical Preliminaries Vault, Medline and CINAHL. In 2003, an efficient survey on the adequacy of physiotherapy, word related treatment and language instruction in HD was distributed; nonetheless, at that point, there was insignificant accessible writing to incorporate. Studies looking at the results of physiotherapy, word related treatment and discourse pathology mediations for individuals with HD up to May 2002 were remembered for this survey, and it was presumed that there was a low degree of proof to help the utilization of physiotherapy for tending to weaknesses of equilibrium, muscle strength and adaptability in HD. No other precise audits or conventions were discovered after a pursuit of the JBISRIR, Cochrane and PROSPERO information bases.
In this proposed blended strategies audit, the quantitative segment will look to consolidate a more extensive scope of study plans, including, however not restricted to, partner examines (with control), case-controlled examinations, illustrative and case arrangement plans. A subjective and text-based part will likewise be fused to help comprehend why drives do or don’t work from the viewpoint of individuals with HD, their families, and parental figures. Joining quantitative, subjective, and printed amalgamations in a similar audit will make this the primary blended techniques deliberate survey that considers the adequacy of scope of physiotherapy and helpful exercise intercessions in individuals with HD and the encounters and impression of patients, their families, and guardians concerning these mediations. Moreover, each examination will be ordered by the set up treatment-based characterizations, and the proof for every grouping will be talked about in the story amalgamation. On the off chance that an examination can’t be sufficiently sorted, this will be talked about independently and suggestions for extra classifications will be made as fitting.
The discoveries of each single-technique blend remembered for this audit will be collected utilizing the JBI strategy for meta-conglomeration. This will include the arrangement of the discoveries to create a bunch of articulations that address that collection through coding any quantitative to credit a topical depiction to all quantitative information, amassing the entirety of the subsequent subjects from quantitative and subjective combinations, and the setup of these subjects to deliver a bunch of integrated discoveries as a bunch of suggestions or ends. The discoveries will be introduced in story structure, remembering tables and figures to help for information show where fitting.
The benefits of botox in aesthetic medicine
It is a substance with optimal results and that, in addition to being easy to administer locally in the affected area, has very wide safety margins. The properties of botulinum toxin applied to aesthetic medicine have been known for many years. It is a substance with optimal results and, in addition to being easy to administer locally in the affected area, it has very wide safety margins.
What can botox be used for in aesthetic medicine?
At present, there are two main uses of botox in aesthetic medicine. One of them is aimed at eliminating facial expression wrinkles while the other use is aimed at reducing sweating in areas of the body where it is abnormally excessive, or hyperhidrosis.
Can it be used for all facial wrinkles?
Although all facial regions can be treated, the most common is to treat the frontal and periorbital regions (crow’s feet). In these regions, its use is completely safe, since the appearance of asymmetries due to the effect of the treatment is almost non-existent, and if they did appear, their correction would be very simple. Even so, in certain cases, the treatment can be performed in almost any facial region. In addition, properly performed Botox injections do not have to leave your face expressionless.
Can it be used for hyper-sweating in all regions of the body?
In principle, yes, but its use in the office itself is more frequent in regions such as the armpits, forehead, and scalp, as well as in the palms of the hands.
Is the injection technique painful?
In principle, it is not an excessively annoying technique, since the amounts to be injected are very small and are performed with the smallest gauge needles that we currently have. Even so, the patient is usually instructed to use an anesthetic cream prior to the session that minimizes the possible painful sensation at the time of botox injection. The sessions last approximately 10-15 minutes, and the patient can continue to lead a completely normal life after the session, except for a couple of easy instructions that must be followed the first 4 or 5 days after treatment.
When does the effect start to show and how long does this effect last?
The effect, in the case of the treatment of facial wrinkles, begins to be noticed 6-7 days after the session, while in the case of the treatment of hyperhidrosis the effect begins to be noticed at 24-48 hours and reaches its maximum on day 7 post-treatment. As for the duration of the effect, after the first session, it is usually about 6-8 months. From the following sessions, the effect lasts up to a year, approximately.
Do cosmetic treatments with botox have any side effects?
The treatment of these alterations with botulinum toxin, carried out within the established parameters, does not have to cause side effects. The doses used are the minimum verified to obtain the desired results. And injection techniques ensure that the desired effect will be local in the area that needs the treatment, and not at other levels of our body.
Khalil ur Rehman is a proud born and raised in Abbottabad. Khalil has worked as a journalist for nearly a decade having contributed to several large publications including the Yahoo News and The Verge. As a journalist for The Hear Up, Khalil covers climate and science news. [email protected]
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