Before starting the design process, the most important thing is to understand how the kitchen is going to be used. This is a basic approach that any architect must take. A kitchen can’t be just a leftover space or a space to be defined at the end of a project. Designers must understand that a kitchen has various flows and different work areas that need to be integrated throughout the entire project.
Beyond the style or kitchen design requested by the client, it’s important to define a module to optimize performance and minimize the manufacturing costs of the different pieces. This way, measurements of all the components of a kitchen are set before defining the space that will house them.
Workspaces and Flow
There are a number of studies that have defined 5 general areas in a kitchen:
- Pantry area: food storage space, canned goods, refrigerator
- Storage area: appliances, utensils, cookware
- Sink area: cleaning area
- Preparation area: ideally a large counter space to work on
- Cooking area: stove and oven.
The pantry, sink, preparation and cooking areas are permanently combined and related to the process of preparing a meal in the most efficient way possible. The sink, preparation and cooking areas produce a narrow triangular work area, which leads to different types of kitchens.
Types of Kitchen
This is related to the space that the design is intended for. The most commonly used types include:
- Linear (or two parallel lines)
In relation to these configurations, it is important to understand how the different flows of movement work. The “work triangle” should be kept smooth, avoiding crossing movements when more than one person is working. At this point it is always good to ask yourself “How would I like to use my own kitchen?” or “What do I like or dislike the most about my current kitchen?” This way we can design our spaces with more sense.
At the beginning of the design and development of the floor plans, you should remember that the kitchen is not just a random binding of a series of furniture and appliances, but is made up of modules that must follow a manufacturing logic. If the design is not clear or doesn’t follow certain reasonable building parameters, it can generate conflict between the architect and the furniture manufacturer.
Therefore, the floor plan must be directly related to the upper areas of the room, and any appliances that are incorporated into the project must match the modulation.
A module consists of the following elements:
- Lower Module: 1 bottom / 1 back / 2 sides / 1 shelf / 1 or 2 door / base / frame bars
- Upper Module: 1 bottom / 1 back / 2 sides / 1 top / 1 shelf / 1 or 2 doors / frame bars
- Tower Module 1 bottom / 1 back / 2 sides / 1 top / series of shelves and doors / base
To avoid problems, modulation should be a design condition that way no appliances can be placed incorrectly. The appliances must be fitted into a single module, to avoid placing them between two different modules. For example, you can’t put a dishwasher, an oven or cooktop in between two modules. If this is done, you won’t have anywhere else to place them (since there wouldn’t be support), and that makes installing other elements like plumbing and electrical conduits more difficult.
One of the biggest mistakes during the designing process happens while looking for symmetry. For example, when designing a base cabinet architects tend to draw vertical lines to indicate a separation of a module and its doors. Different sized parts are left between them in order to find symmetry.
It is essential to understand that the more times you repeat the exact measurement of the module, the easier it will be to construct and install the cabinets. The standardization of measurements is 100% related to the cost that the final project will have and is the difference between a project that’s doable and one that isn’t.
Measurements are always related to the appliances and, in some cases, with the hardware available on the market with measurements that were already designed to fit kitchen furniture.
The standard widths of a module are variable and depend on the use that each module has. Usually, they tend to work in round measurements 30cm, 45cm, 50cm, 60cm, 75cm, 80cm, 90cm, 100cm — all measures are considered to be from outer edge to outer edge of the module.
When thinking about the appliances, the modules are generally 60cm and 90cm for microwave ovens, cooktops, and exhausts. An oven, for example, measures a little less than 60cm and is designed to fit neatly into a 60cm gap including the sides. In the case of the sink, it depends on the drilling that you need to do on the counter and if you’re going to mount the sink above or below the countertop. There are models of sinks ranging from 30cm to 90cm wide. The gap between the module and the appliance must be a few extra centimeters. It doesn’t matter if the strain-board section of the sink is supported by one or more modules if it is mounted above the countertop.
The hardware you wish to use will also have an impact on the width of a module. Hinges are used mostly on modules with doors while drawers require drawer slides. The hinges can really impact the module width. In the case of drawers, the hardware also defines the width of the drawer. Traditional drawer slides are made for drawers in sizes of 40cm, 50cm or 60cm, while more advanced drawer slides allow for drawers up to 120cm in width. It is important to understand that the more advanced drawer slides, like soft close ones, cost more so it’s recommended to use the longest ones possible. There are other types of accessories that can make a kitchen appear more stylish, like spice racks (15cm to 20cm), organizers (40cm to 60cm), dish racks (hanging units 40cm to 85cm) etc. Save this picture!
ase modules have a standard depth of 60cm. This measurement takes into consideration that the sides have a width of 58cm and adds another 1.8cm for the width of the door. The countertop should always exceed the measure of the depth of the module so that if something is spilled on the counter, the liquid does not drip directly onto the wood. The depth of the module may decrease for spaces that don’t include appliances. However, we do not recommend decreasing depth as it generally applies to kitchen solutions that weren’t well thought out to begin with.
In the case of upper modules there are two different sizes to work with: 30cm or 35cm, both serve different intended purposes. When using a built-in microwave design it is important to remember that the bottom should be at least 35cm, in order to leave some extra room. In the case of a module using a depth of 30cm for the microwave, the bottom should extend at least 5cm.
For towers, it is recommended to use the same depth of the base, ideally 60cm. When considering an oven within the tower, it must be exactly 60cm deep. It is important to keep in mind that the oven needs a space of about 10cm going all the way up to the ceiling to allow for the heat to be released in the back. Currently, there are ovens that do not require this opening so it is always important to check the specifications of each device before considering the design of the module.
For the base modules, the height is generally 90cm from the floor to the countertop. The modules must never have direct contact with the floor due to moisture, with the allotted space being between 10cm and 15cm. There are series of adjustable legs on the market that allow adjustments for floors that are not 100% level. These can ultimately be closed with a baseboard, which tends to be a piece of chipboard or plywood covered with formic. The baseboard must have a recess of at least 7.5cm from the edge of the doors. There is the option of leaving the legs in full sight but it isn’t recommended because that tends to be a place where dust accumulates.
In the case of the upper modules, these are anchored to the wall and must be placed at a height of 1.40 – 1.50 meters from the floor. This measurement is 100% related to the depth of the base module. The lower the depth of the base, the greater the recommended height of the upper modules. This creates a workspace where the top module is not an obstacle. It is important to consider the recommendations of the air exhaust using it in the project, as each one has a specified volume of air extraction that is dependent on its distance from the counter.
Like the appliances, all products and materials have a standard size and this is essential for getting the best possible performance out of them.
Shelving and Doors
Prism TFL is the main material used for the construction of kitchen cabinets and it is also used to make shelves and doors. It is a very efficient material, as its estimated lifetime is longer than that of the kitchen itself, ranging from 10 to 15 years. A cabinet structure can be manufactured using melamine 15mm thick, while for doors the recommended measurement is 18mm thick. This thickness works better when making holes for the hinges. If you want to prolong the life of a kitchen, you can make a design that allows for change only to the doors while keeping the structures. This way you can update the look of the kitchen at a lower cost.
Furniture cupboard used indoors to store household objects
A cupboard is a type of storage cabinet, often made of wood, used indoors to store household objects such as food, crockery, textiles and liquor, and protect them from dust and dirt. The term cupboard was originally used to describe an open-shelved side table for displaying plates, cups and saucers. These open cupboards typically had between one and three display tiers, and at the time, a drawer or multiple drawers fitted to them. The word cupboard gradually came to mean a closed piece of furniture.
cupboard, type of furniture that originated in the Middle Ages as a board or table for cups. The word also may have been used for a stepped sideboard and later for open shelves, both to display plate. Since the 16th century the name has referred to a case fitted with doors.
Byzantine and Romanesque cupboards were of simple board construction, though they were sometimes decorated with elaborate painted designs. A fine example of about 1200, painted inside and out with pictures of saints on a gesso ground, survives in the cathedral at Halberstadt, Ger. Such freestanding cupboards were made for churches long before they were in common use in domestic interiors. The latter stage was reached only in the 14th century, when portable furniture began to be preferred to fixed objects that stood as permanent parts of a building. Many of the finest medieval cupboards were finely carved with Gothic designs closely following architectural motifs and forms.
Late 15th-century cupboards for food storage, such as the English livery cupboard, had ventilating holes, often taking the form of carved open tracery. Another variety was the hall, or parlour, cupboard, an enclosed version of the cupboard for display. The court cupboard, for example, was important in Tudor and Stuart times in England but lost fashion after the Restoration.
By the 17th century the cupboard was taking over the role of the chest as the principal piece of storage furniture. In certain parts of Europe, such as southern Germany, the cupboard may have developed from a chest placed on another chest, each opening at the front rather than at the top. For a long time cupboards were divided in two, horizontally, with handles sometimes attached to the sides of each section to facilitate moving.
With the increasing importance of the cupboard, decoration became more lavish, taking the form of panelling, carving, and intarsia (mosaic of wood). Italy led the way in the 16th century with some of the finest intarsia panels. Panels were rectangular and sometimes contained finely carved scenes, or motifs, accompanied by carved friezes (horizontal bands). In the 17th century the Low Countries popularized a heavy form of cupboard, called in Dutch a kast (or, in the United States, kas), in which the panels were raised and three evenly spaced twisted columns supported a heavy cornice, the whole resting on squat bun (or ball) feet. Northern Germany was particularly noted for its massive cupboards, which were the most important pieces of furniture in the house.
The press was a tall cupboard that held bed linen, curtains, and clothes as international trade provided for a greater number of luxury goods in the well-to-do household. In the early 18th century a press composed of a cupboard above a chest of drawers became popular in England, and its use spread to the Continent. Until modern times no major advances in cupboard design were made after the 18th century.
Everything You Need To Know About Vinyl Flooring Before You Buy
Vinyl flooring is a synthetic material favored for its durability and functionality. It has become an increasingly popular flooring material in recent years because of its ability to fight off moisture and its versatile appearance. Plus, it’s one of the most affordable flooring options. Vinyl flooring can realistically mimic wood, stone, marble and a vast array of other luxury flooring materials.
Vinyl flooring comprises several layers of materials. When pressed together, these materials form a water-resistant, long-lasting and relatively cheap covering for floors.
Standard vinyl flooring usually consists of four layers of materials. The first, or bottom, layer of these is the backing layer, generally made of cork or foam. It is designed to serve as the underlayment for the vinyl flooring so that you do not have to install another material prior to laying down the vinyl flooring. Additionally, it functions as a cushion to make walking on the floor more comfortable and a sound barrier to keep noise at bay.
Above the backing layer sits the waterproof layer (assuming you are using waterproof vinyl). This layer is designed to absorb moisture without swelling or compromising the integrity of the floor. There are two types of waterproof layers: WPC, made from a wood and plastic deposit, and SPC, made from a stone and plastic deposit.
Above the waterproof layer is the design layer, which features a high-resolution printed image of your choosing. Many design layers are printed to resemble wood, marble, stone and other high-end materials.
Finally, there is the wear layer, which sits at the top of vinyl flooring and protects it from being harmed. High-traffic areas will need a thick wear layer in order to retain a long lifespan, while less walked-upon areas can handle a thinner wear layer.
Luxury vinyl flooring may have even more than four layers of materials, usually six to eight. These can include a clear top coat layer, which lends a sheen to the floor and provides extra protection for the wear layer, a cushion layer made of foam or felt engineered to make the floor comfortable to walk on and a fiberglass layer that supports the layers above it and helps the flooring lie as evenly and securely as possible.
Vinyl planks are designed to resemble hardwood floors and come in designs that mimic many varieties of wood. Many people choose from the various types of vinyl planks because unlike wood, vinyl planks are water-resistant, stain-resistant and easy to maintain. This type of vinyl flooring is best for high-traffic areas that are prone to wear-and-tear.
Vinyl tiles are designed to resemble stone or ceramic tiles. Like vinyl planks, they come in a wide variety of patterns and colors that mimic their naturally occurring counterparts. When installing vinyl tiles, some people even add grout in order to more closely replicate the effect of stone or ceramic tiles. Many people favor vinyl tile for small areas of their home because unlike stone tiles, vinyl tiles can easily be cut in order to fit in small spaces.
Unlike vinyl planks and tiles, vinyl sheets come in rolls up to twelve feet wide and can be laid down in one fell swoop. Most people choose vinyl sheets for large areas of their homes because of its affordability and durability.
Luxury Vinyl Plank and Tile
With more layers than standard vinyl floors, luxury vinyl planks and tiles are around five times thicker than their counterparts. The additional material can lend a realism to the flooring, particularly when trying to mimic wood or stone. Luxury vinyl plank and tile are designed using 3D printers, making them an especially great choice if you’re trying to realistically replicate a naturally-occurring flooring material like wood or stone. Luxury vinyl plank and tile are generally more durable than standard vinyl flooring, with a lifespan of roughly 20 years.
Cost of Vinyl Flooring
Vinyl flooring costs, on average, between $0.50 and $2 per square foot, while vinyl plank and vinyl tiles cost $2 to $3 per square foot. Luxury vinyl plank and luxury vinyl tile cost between $2.50 and $5 per square foot.
Vinyl flooring installation will generally cost $36 to $45 an hour, with vinyl sheeting installation costs averaging at $3 per square foot and vinyl plank and tile installation costs at $7 per square foot.
Pros and Cons of Vinyl Flooring
- Designed to last and can endure significantly more wear-and-tear than floors made from traditional materials
- Cheaper than traditional flooring materials
- Nearly infinite possibilities when it comes to design options, meaning you’ll have plenty to choose from when selecting a floor for your home
- Relatively easy to install
- Can be difficult to remove because its adhesive hardens against the floorboards.
- Can be inconsistent, with some vinyl flooring measuring in as thin as 2 mm.
Vinyl Flooring Factors to Consider
When deciding whether to install a vinyl floor, consider how much foot traffic takes place in the area of your house in question. Vinyl flooring is built to last and to handle significant wear and tear, making it a good choice for heavily-visited areas. Since some vinyl is significantly thicker than others, it’s important to consider how much protection the area in question will need.
Despite vinyl flooring’s reputation for being durable, there are a couple of circumstances where it just doesn’t hold up. It doesn’t stand up particularly well to heavy loads, for example, so you’ll want to avoid installing it in a place where you might be dealing with large equipment.
Vinyl flooring can also be damaged by sharp objects, so keep it away from anything that might scar its surface. Additionally, the color of vinyl flooring can fade after significant exposure to sunlight, so you’ll want to refrain from installing it outdoors or in an indoor/outdoor space.
Vinyl is more easily laid on some surfaces than others and works best on a preexisting smooth surface. Laying vinyl over a floor with pre-existing flaws, like an old hardwood floor, can be tricky, because those flaws will appear beneath the new vinyl floor, thereby depriving you of a smooth surface.
Vinyl flooring can be laid over an older layer of vinyl, but most manufacturers will advise against laying it over more than one layer of vinyl, as flaws in the material will begin to show through with time.
Similarly, while vinyl can be installed over concrete, the integrity of the floor is likely to be sacrificed. In many cases, you’ll be best off adding a layer of well-sanded plywood between your current floor and your new vinyl floor for the sake of a better feel underfoot and a more uniform look.
Vinyl flooring is an affordable, adaptable, and durable option when it comes to floors. You’ll have to consider which type of vinyl flooring is right for your home and which parts of your home are the best candidates for vinyl flooring, but with a wide variety of options to choose from, you’re likely to find a way to make it work.
The History of the Evil Eye necklace, an Ancient Symbol of Protection￼
I’m wearing one of my own as I type this but it’s the old-fashioned kind, one I probably bought in multiples from a stall in the Monastiraki flea market in Athens to bring back home for friends. There was a time that was the only sort of evil eye necklace you could find: blue and white glass symbols strung on a leather chord. Now they come studded with sapphires and diamonds or painted in fine and vibrant enamel tones.
Meghan Markle often wears one, sometimes in the form of a pendant with a blue topaz eye, but she has also been seen wearing a delicate gold evil eye bracelet. How did this ancient symbol of protection leap from proud proof of a Greek vacation to royal jewelry status?
I often, and proudly, trace its rise to designer Ileana Makri, who brought the shape and all its meaning from Athens to Barney’s New York in late 1999. The first time I saw an evil eye that did not look like the ones from the flea market was one afternoon at Barney’s while staring into a vitrine with Makri’s name lightly etched in the corner. They were as full of the talismanic power as any I had ever seen, but they were also full of diamonds.
Whenever anyone asks me why we still wear evil eye necklace, or why we wear them now more than ever, I point them to this Greek-born jeweler. And so, after seeing Meghan Markle wear an evil eye (one that promptly sold out after a photo appeared) I emailed Makri, at home in Athens—in an apartment with one of the best Acropolis views I’ve ever seen—and asked her for her views on this ancient mystical symbol of protection.
A quasi-universal symbol of protection, the evil eye is referred to as μάτι (mati) in Greek. The concept and the significance of the evil eye is especially prominent in the Mediterranean and West Asia.
The evil eye necklace is a “look” or “stare” that is believed to bring bad luck for the person at whom it is directed for reasons of envy or dislike. The perception of the nature of the phenomenon, its causes, and possible protective measures, varies between tribes and cultures. The evil eye necklace is a talisman that is meant to protect you from these evil spirits.
The evil eye is a ‘look’ or ‘stare’ believed to bring bad luck for the person at whom it is directed
Belief in the evil eye—“mati”—dates back to Greek Classical antiquity, to at least the 6th century B.C. when it appeared on drinking vessels. It is referenced by Plato, Hesiod, Plutarch and many more classical authors who attempted both to describe and explain the function of the evil eye.
Plutarch’s scientific explanation stated that the eyes were the chief, if not sole, source of the deadly rays that were supposed to spring up like poisoned darts from the inner recesses of a person possessing the evil eye. It is a curse or legend believed to be cast by this malevolent glare, and usually given to a person when they are unaware.
An evil eye is a talisman or amulet, designed in the shape of an eye, traditionally in the colors blue or green, that indicate spiritual protection. These talismans or evil eye “repellents” come in different shapes and forms as pendants, bracelets, earrings and rings. Or can be hanging in a glass bead form over the main door or entrance of someone’s home to keep the hearth protected.
When did you start wearing one?
My mother would put an evil eye pin on my crib to make sure any negative energy directed at me would be turned back and I would be protected and safe. Around the age of 6, I got my first piece of jewelry which was a small gold ID bracelet with a tiny evil eye charm hanging from it.
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