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What is an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer?




What is an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer?

In order to understand the principle and the function of an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, it is imperative here to understand what “Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy” deals with. It is the study that is used to scrutinize the samples of metal. This is carried out by evaluating the existence and concentration of the “Metal” in a liquefied sample. While the “Metals Group” includes Fe, Cu, Al, Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd, and several other metals, when these metals are excited by heat in their elemental form, they absorb the ultraviolet radiations. One metal is made to absorb the gaseous emissions; they respond to it in a unique way that makes it easier to distinguish their characteristics. While they are being treated, every metal will absorb a specific wavelength that will, in turn, help in identifying their characteristics.


How Does an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Works?

While an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer is a device that is used to carry out the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, the principle by which it works is centered around focusing the ray of ultraviolet (UV) light on to the metal sample. It is practically performed by focusing a specified wavelength over the metal being tested. The ultraviolet beam of light is focused through a “Flame,” directly into the “Detector.” The liquid sample of the metal is “Atomized” into a vaporous state and is then enunciated into the flame. As it is understood that when the metals are in their elemental form, they will absorb the Ultraviolet Light upon being excited by the flash. While every mineral has a tendency to consume a specific characteristic wavelength, the absorption rate is what helps in determining the characteristic of the metal being treated for. The detector in the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer calculates the variation in the strength of the Ultraviolet light. The change that is measured is then fed into the computer, which in turn, converts the changes measured in the intensity of the beam, determining the concentration for the element being treated for!


What are the Applications of an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer?

While an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer might appear to serve one purpose only, there can be a list of various typical and industrial applications for this device. Hence, focusing on the purpose and the applications it is used for, following are few of the examples that employe an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer:

  1. Measuring the concentration of various elements in the finished products like,
    •  Petrochemical: Used to find traces for Impurities present in the gasoline, like Fe, Mn, or Pb
    • Manufacturing Industry (Metallurgy): Finding the concentration of the Alloying Elements like Ag, Au, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, etc.
  1. Measuring the content of Toxic Metals that may be present in the products to be used by humans or animals like,
    • Medicinal Purposes: To help to find the traces of Cd, Pb, Ca, Fe, Zn
    • Pharmaceuticals: To find the dashes of Cr, Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Hg
    • Food Products: To find any traces of Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Sn, or Zn
    • Water Treatment: To find the traces of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn
    • Animal Feed: To look out for the traces of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb


  1. Also used to measure the Metal content in soil samples for agricultural purposes and other purposes like Geological or Mining like, Ag, Au, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, etc.


What are the Features of an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer?

While an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer’s Price may vary depending on the company producing it and the list of features it has in store. But considering the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometers made at Moyer Instruments, following are the list of brilliant features you are destined to find nowhere else:



There are 3 flame options provided:

  • Air/Acetylene: It uses 100mm single slot burner. The flame can be quickly set from “Blue Lean” to “Fuel Rich.”
  • N20/Acetylene: It uses 50mm single slot burner. It allows measuring elements which are less disposed to “Ionization” like, Aluminum, Tin, Titanium, Calcium, Vanadium, and Molybdenum.
  • Air/LPG: It uses 3 slots burner that has low-pressure requirements. It is much safer to use.


SAFETY FEATURES: Flame Automiser monitors Pressure for all gases. Includes “Burner Identification Flame Sensor,” “Drain Trap level Sensor,” “Gas Leak Detector,” and “Cut off Switch for Over Pressure in Premix” are added for additional safety.




The preeminent “Graphite Furnace Atomiser” is integrated and is offered in two configurations.

  • A3G,” being the first configuration, has the “Graphite Furnace Head” which is fixed to the light path, offering accurate alignment with the optical path.
  • In the “A3FG” configuration, the “Graphite Furnace Head” is placed static prior to the flame atomizer.


SAFETY FEATURES: Comes with “Acetylene Pressure Monitoring,” which is included for all the gases. Additionally, “Burner Identification Flame Sensor”, “Drain Trap level Sensor”, “Gas Leak Detector”, “Cut off Switch for Over Pressure in Premix”, Argon Gas Pressure Sensor”, “Water Flow Sensor”, “Over Temperature Sensor”, and “Broken Graphite Tube Protection” is added for better safety!

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Top 3 Self Driving Car Companies to Watch out in 2020




Top 3 Self Driving Car Companies to Watch out in 2020

Many organizations are working on developing self-driving cars and hardware for autonomous cars of all types.

In this race to build a completely self-driving car, some companies are further in terms of real-world testing and practical experience than others.

We will have a look at all the top 3 self-driving car companies in the world.

Top 3 Autonomous Vehicle Companies 


On the basis of the number of vehicles testing and the number of kilometers driven, Waymo tops the list with over 32 million kilometers driven on the road.

Their cars are equipped with advanced cameras, LiDAR, and radar sensors along with a microphone that detects sirens from emergency vehicles

Currently, Waymo is testing is the prototype of fully driverless SAE Autonomy Level 4 vehicles in Phoenix and Arizona.

Waymo has recently set up additional testing facilities in Michigan and California to test its cars in winter conditions.

The next on the list is Tesla.


Tesla is putting enormous efforts to develop a fully autonomous vehicle.

Although Tesla has excluded the Light Detection and Ranging(LIDAR), Tesla instead prefers ultrasonic, radar, and 2D cameras for autonomous operations.

The company has till now collected data from 600,000 Tesla’s with having collectively driven more than 3.2 billion kilometers world-wide.

One can’t deny the fact that Tesla has built up a level of experience with some auto-pilot features of SAE level 2.

Reports state that their prototyping vehicles have already reached SAE level 5.


Argo AI is an independent startup that started in 2017, with a $1 billion investment from Ford Motor Company. The company has also attracted a $2.6 billion investment from Volkswagen.

Argo AI today is testing over 100 vehicles in almost 6 cities of the United States.
Technically it’s still an independent venture. Unlike other manufacturers, AgroAi doesn’t foresee producing its own cars. Rather Ford and VW want Argo AI to manufacture self-driving car technology for other companies starting with service-based firms like the Robo-taxis.

There are quite few other companies that are promisingly working on developing a self-driving car like the ones Baidu and GM cruise developed.

Even startups like Cruise Automation, Tu Simple, and Zoox are working towards developing AI  for autonomous vehicles. E-learning platforms like Udacity has already launched their courses on self-driving cars that teach how to make one.

While completely autonomous vehicles won’t become mainstream in the next few years, Waymo, Tesla, and Argo AI are making significant advances in the self-driving car market.

With improvements in IoT technologies, strides toward fully autonomous vehicles are sure to follow.

As IoT technology continues to improve, strides toward fully autonomous vehicles are sure to follow.

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[Solved]Mac Starts to Prohibitory Symbol After macOS Big Sur Update




[Solved]Mac Starts to Prohibitory Symbol After macosBig Sur Update

macOS Big Sur will be the next version of Mac OS, announced at WWDC 2020. It is again named after the landscape in California but skips the macOS 10 version to macOS 11. According to the macOS Big Sur preview from Apple, the new features mainly sit in the new control center, interface and notification center as well as improved apps such as Safari, Messages and Maps.

However, the new OS doesn’t always bring good news. Here is a list of macOS 11 known issues and fixes. In this article, we will specifically discuss the Mac booting into a prohibitory symbol on the screen after macOS Big Sur update.

What does it mean when your Mac boots to a prohibitory symbol?

When a circle with a line cross it appears on your Mac’s monitor instead of a login screen or desktop, it is very likely that your Mac doesn’t support running macOS Big Sur. Even though the OS can be successfully downloaded on the startup disk, the relevant hardware is unable to install the OS nor launch it for use. It is a very typical problem people encounter when they update their Mac computers.

What Macs are compatible with macOS 11 Big Sur?

It is recommended to check the system requirements before you upgrade your Mac, especially before a major OS version upgrade. Some models can run macOS Catalina but are not necessarily compatible with macOS Big Sur.

macOS 11 Big Sur can be running on Macs including:

  • MacBook models from early 2015 or later
  • MacBook Air/Pro models from 2013 or later
  • Mac mini models from 2014 or later
  • Mac Pro models from 2013 or later
  • iMac models from 2014 or later
  • iMac Pro models

By checking the Mac’s hardware information, you can go to Apple logo and About This Mac to know your Mac model.

How to fix the prohibitory problem issue?

Now you know macOS Big Sur is not the right OS to run on your Mac, but how to get rid of the downloaded macOS 11 files and restore the Mac? Don’t panic. The steps are very easy.

Step 1: Boot your Mac into Recovery Mode.

You need to start or restart your Mac and immediately press down Command, Option and R keys together. Release the keys until you see a loading screen. The booting process will be a lot slower than usual. Then you will be led to the OS X Utilities or macOS Utilities window.

Step 2: Back up files from the Mac.

If you are afraid of data loss, you can use Target Disk Mode or data recovery software to get the important files off the Mac first.

Step 3: Reinstall OS

You can choose to format the hard drive first in Disk Utility and reinstall OS. Also, you can directly reinstall OS by selecting Reinstall OS X or macOS and clicking Continue. You just need to follow the wizard to finish the reinstallation.


Before you update to a newer OS, do remember to check the compatibility first in case you will boot to a prohibitory symbol during the installation. If the issue is happening, you can easily restore the Mac to a bootable state. macOS 11 Big Sur is a beta now and will be released to public in fall 2020, so it is recommended to upgrade after it is officially released if your Mac is compatible.



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7 Advantages Of A Dedicated Server




7 Advantages Of A Dedicated Server
  1. Improved Reliability and Control

Many organizations looking for superior reliability and seamless company operations often go for nothing less than a dedicated server.  This is because dedicated servers offer unmatched reliability with all the server resources dedicated to the company tasks and workload. This means employees can work on internal applications seamlessly while customers access specific apps without facing any downtimes. Such is critical for companies working on mission-critical applications.

  1. Backup Servers

While disruptions may be inevitable in the modern world, most companies will want to keep them on the minimum.  You, however, need to have safety and backup measures in place should the worst happen.  This is particularly in the case of a power outage, floods, and a security incident, among other incidences.  However, a dedicated server makes it possible to set up an off-site backup system where all data is backed up immediately and efficiently. This means you get operations back up and running within the shortest time possible, hence minimal disruptions. Such reliability and resilience are only possible with a dedicated backup server.

  1. High-Volume And Web Traffic Servers

A dedicated server is your best solution for websites and apps looking to handle tons of traffic at one go. These servers are designed to handle web-based workloads with heavy spikes, periodic, and on-demand loads that might be too much for a cloud-based server. Only a dedicated server can guarantee you of continued availability, uptime, and resources even when traffic is at its peak. That said, it would be wise to pay a little more for the peace of mind and guarantee that everything will be working optimally.

  1. SaaS Applications

Companies dealing with software-as-a-service and B2B applications get better support on dedicated servers as compared to other types of servers available today.  In addition to its unrivaled performance and uptime, a dedicated server offers total control over its resources. This guarantees the SaaS users of optimal performance with little to no downtimes.

  1. Video Streaming And Conferencing

With more and more companies/organizations adopting a unified form of communications, many are switching to communications-as-a-service. This service makes it easier for employees and staff to hold video conferences from various departments.  However, only a dedicated server is capable of handling and providing the bandwidth required to offer such a service. Video streaming and conferencing can be a little too demanding on shared server resources; another reason a dedicated server is better designed to handle such heavy loads.

  1. I/O Intensive Databases And Big Databases

Most applications and processes built on big I/O databases, including Microsoft SQL, Oracle, and MySQL, require a server with unlimited resources to perform optimally.  Only a dedicated server is presumably capable of handling such intensive input/output databases and big data.  With big data, and especially IoT (internet of things) on the rise, and streaming data running on continual calculations, more and more companies are looking for more control in the form of customizable software/configurations to suit their workloads. Only a dedicated server offers such versatility.

Visit for more information.

  1. Sensitive Data On Highly-Regulated Industries

While cloud security has improved on public domains and especially on shared cloud resources, most organizations find it almost impossible to operate under such. One of the reasons for this is the fact that the organization can only run only on a dedicated server, and nothing less. It thus would have to comply with such requirements to be able to operate.

With numerous risks arising from running on a cloud/shared hosting server, most organizations aren’t willing to take such risks. Some of the most commonly known issues associated with shared resources include data leaks and access configuration errors, most of which are too costly for many organizations.  On the other hand, a dedicated server provides your trusted support staff and team members with all access privileges, with the organization required to ensure optimal information security.


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