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What is an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer?




What is an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer?

In order to understand the principle and the function of an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, it is imperative here to understand what “Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy” deals with. It is the study that is used to scrutinize the samples of metal. This is carried out by evaluating the existence and concentration of the “Metal” in a liquefied sample. While the “Metals Group” includes Fe, Cu, Al, Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd, and several other metals, when these metals are excited by heat in their elemental form, they absorb the ultraviolet radiations. One metal is made to absorb the gaseous emissions; they respond to it in a unique way that makes it easier to distinguish their characteristics. While they are being treated, every metal will absorb a specific wavelength that will, in turn, help in identifying their characteristics.


How Does an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Works?

While an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer is a device that is used to carry out the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, the principle by which it works is centered around focusing the ray of ultraviolet (UV) light on to the metal sample. It is practically performed by focusing a specified wavelength over the metal being tested. The ultraviolet beam of light is focused through a “Flame,” directly into the “Detector.” The liquid sample of the metal is “Atomized” into a vaporous state and is then enunciated into the flame. As it is understood that when the metals are in their elemental form, they will absorb the Ultraviolet Light upon being excited by the flash. While every mineral has a tendency to consume a specific characteristic wavelength, the absorption rate is what helps in determining the characteristic of the metal being treated for. The detector in the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer calculates the variation in the strength of the Ultraviolet light. The change that is measured is then fed into the computer, which in turn, converts the changes measured in the intensity of the beam, determining the concentration for the element being treated for!


What are the Applications of an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer?

While an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer might appear to serve one purpose only, there can be a list of various typical and industrial applications for this device. Hence, focusing on the purpose and the applications it is used for, following are few of the examples that employe an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer:

  1. Measuring the concentration of various elements in the finished products like,
    •  Petrochemical: Used to find traces for Impurities present in the gasoline, like Fe, Mn, or Pb
    • Manufacturing Industry (Metallurgy): Finding the concentration of the Alloying Elements like Ag, Au, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, etc.
  1. Measuring the content of Toxic Metals that may be present in the products to be used by humans or animals like,
    • Medicinal Purposes: To help to find the traces of Cd, Pb, Ca, Fe, Zn
    • Pharmaceuticals: To find the dashes of Cr, Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Hg
    • Food Products: To find any traces of Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Sn, or Zn
    • Water Treatment: To find the traces of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn
    • Animal Feed: To look out for the traces of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb


  1. Also used to measure the Metal content in soil samples for agricultural purposes and other purposes like Geological or Mining like, Ag, Au, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, etc.


What are the Features of an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer?

While an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer’s Price may vary depending on the company producing it and the list of features it has in store. But considering the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometers made at Moyer Instruments, following are the list of brilliant features you are destined to find nowhere else:



There are 3 flame options provided:

  • Air/Acetylene: It uses 100mm single slot burner. The flame can be quickly set from “Blue Lean” to “Fuel Rich.”
  • N20/Acetylene: It uses 50mm single slot burner. It allows measuring elements which are less disposed to “Ionization” like, Aluminum, Tin, Titanium, Calcium, Vanadium, and Molybdenum.
  • Air/LPG: It uses 3 slots burner that has low-pressure requirements. It is much safer to use.


SAFETY FEATURES: Flame Automiser monitors Pressure for all gases. Includes “Burner Identification Flame Sensor,” “Drain Trap level Sensor,” “Gas Leak Detector,” and “Cut off Switch for Over Pressure in Premix” are added for additional safety.




The preeminent “Graphite Furnace Atomiser” is integrated and is offered in two configurations.

  • A3G,” being the first configuration, has the “Graphite Furnace Head” which is fixed to the light path, offering accurate alignment with the optical path.
  • In the “A3FG” configuration, the “Graphite Furnace Head” is placed static prior to the flame atomizer.


SAFETY FEATURES: Comes with “Acetylene Pressure Monitoring,” which is included for all the gases. Additionally, “Burner Identification Flame Sensor”, “Drain Trap level Sensor”, “Gas Leak Detector”, “Cut off Switch for Over Pressure in Premix”, Argon Gas Pressure Sensor”, “Water Flow Sensor”, “Over Temperature Sensor”, and “Broken Graphite Tube Protection” is added for better safety!

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Top 3 Ways to Restore Line Chat History




Top 3 Ways to Restore Line Chat History

Restore Line Chat History: One of the most well-known cross-stage social instant messenger applications is LINE. There are more than 600 million clients across the globe of LINE. On the off chance that you are a LINE user, at that point, you may definitely realize that there are three ways to share, transfer, or move for backup and reestablish our LINE Chats. Therefore, in this post, we are going to help you by introducing the best methods to backup line chat history super easily.

In any case, there are times when clients or different users erase their LINE chats accidentally just to think twice about it a short time later. Fortunately, you can still reestablish and backup LINE chat history on the off chance that you need to. Today with the help of this post, I will make you familiar with 3 unique approaches to backup and reestablish LINE chat history on Android and iPhone.

1) Is There a Chance to Restore LINE Chat History?

Basically, yes – you can restore LINE chat history at any time anywhere. For this, you must have to have a formerly taken LINE chat backup to reestablish. There are general approaches to backup LINE chat that I will cover later in this post. On the off chance that in the event that you have erased your LINE chat and you don’t have a current backup, at that point things may get trickier. 

While there are not many information recovery applications out there (for iOS and Android), the majority of them probably won’t have the option to recover the erased LINE chat. They may filter the gadget and let you get back the current LINE chats. 

That is the reason it is prescribed to consistently keep a LINE chat backup convenient so you can undoubtedly reestablish your erased chat at the period of scarcity. One of the best methods to backup line chat easily so that you have a copy of your data in case you lose it in any situation.

2) Restore LINE Chat History on iPhone (by means of iCloud) 

So in case if you own an iOS gadget, at that point you can take a backup of your LINE chat to the connected iCloud account and with the help of this, you can save your LINE chat, contacts, and other connections. However, this may take a generous measure of space on your iCloud account so you should have enough accessible storage on it. Additionally, on the off chance that you are as of now utilizing LINE on your gadget, at that point the process will erase the current information on it. In the event that you are prepared, at that point simply follow these means to figure out how to backup and reestablish or backup line chat history on iPhone. 

  1. Initially, you have to launch the LINE application on your iPhone, and then go to its Settings menu. Once you reach the settings menu, you need to go to Chats. In the chat options search for Chat Backup History, and then click on the “Back Up Now” button. 
Line chat
  1. The second important thing is to keep up a steady web connection and network as LINE would take a backup of your chats on iCloud. Ensure that the latest and active iCloud account is connected to your application already. 
line chat history

3. Presently, to reestablish LINE chat history on the equivalent or the newest gadget, you have to reinstall LINE. Additionally, go to its Settings menu > iCloud and turn the iCloud Drive on. The gadget should be connected to a similar iCloud account where your LINE backup is put away. 

4. As you would launch LINE, sign into a similar record as before to finish the exchange. As the application would identify the past backup, decide to reestablish it to your gadget.

This is one of the best methods to backup line chat on your iPhone and iPad devices. All you need to do is to make sure that you execute all the steps.

Line chat history

3) Restore LINE Chat History on Android (via the Google Drive)

Much the same as the iPhone, there is additionally an alternative to backup and reestablish LINE chat history on an Android gadget also. With the help of this, you may also connect with your LINE application to your Google account. You can also easily save your chat on it. In advance, simply ensure that there is sufficient free space on your Google Drive to oblige the LINE backup. To figure out how to start the process of backing up LINE chat history on an Android, follow these steps in the sequential way:  

a. First, start the LINE application on your Android phone, go to its Settings menu > Chats, and then select the element to backup and reestablish chat history. 

b. Now you have to click on the choice to backup your talks on Google Drive. Likewise, also you have to click on the Google Account area to ensure that LINE is connected with a fitting record. 

c. You need to wait for some time as the application would keep up a backup of your LINE chats on the connected Google account and it will take some time. 

d. Whenever that is done, you can reinstall LINE or introduce it on another Android gadget. The new gadget ought to be connected to a similar Google account. Thereafter, go to its Backup and Restore settings again and tap on the “Reestablish” catch to get back your chats.


That’s it! Subsequent to perusing this guide, you would positively have the option to backup and reestablish LINE chat history like an expert. As should be obvious, the most straightforward approach to backup and reestablish your LINE talks is by utilizing Mobile Trans. It will let you legitimately save your LINE information on your PC system and would later backup LINE chat history to the equivalent or some other iOS gadget with a click. You can also use mobile trans software to create the backup line chat easily.

Resources link:



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How to start a career in Cyber Security? [Beginner’s Guide]

Umar Nisar



How to start a career in Cyber Security?

Cybersecurity is perceived as an attractive career by ambitious individuals and is the best way of making the world an advanced place to live in. If you want a career in cybersecurity, don’t sweat it. To debunk the myth, it is not that hard to get your foot into the doors of this sector. There is no age limit or any particular recommendations required to get going. Although, a little academic knowledge would not harm. Read ahead to find out why you must acquire professional and practical knowledge with a cybersecurity course.

Here’s the secret of this: you can not only start learning about the techniques to combat cyber threats but also start doing. The well-structured assignments will allow you to get involved in any possible manner. Opting for a cybersecurity programme is the best way to learn and put your skills to test. This will make room for you to instil the skill, consistency and patience you need to ultimately develop a high level of proficiency at determining security vulnerabilities that require immediate reporting.

As per the data published on Purplesec, a 600% rise in cybercrime has been observed during the COVID 19 pandemic. What’s in it for you? The rising demand for technical experts on cybersecurity, which calls for a solid educational background and practical training. This is because in this field the amount of investment in learning will reward you with career opportunity.

Cybersecurity certification programmes are designed to equip students with business understanding people skills, and leadership competence. This implies that besides possessing technical efficiency, you must be truly overcome difficult challenges within the realms of cybersecurity. On the most strategic level, the divisions pertaining to cybersecurity is the combination of risk management, concerning the leadership of and collaboration between clients. You know what? There are plenty of possibilities of the industry segments and application areas, that it is impossible to explore all of them in a single lifetime. This spans across a wide range of specialisations including network security, access management, and security of the application, endpoint protection, mobile security, cryptography, authentication, identity clarification, threat intelligence, social hacking and phishing. You may be accountable for dealing with transactions of a commercial company or the public sector, for a vendor or a customer. Earning a qualification in cybersecurity will let you acquire operational roles or

leadership position, with popular technologies or those under development. The job list is practically endless and it allows you to either choose to become an instructor or consultant.

Apply to an executive programme in cybersecurity will make you aware of what lies within the aspects of advanced terminology and utility that a cybersecurity division is. Cybersecurity is an adventurous industry to be employed at, therefore, it is suggested that you don’t get intimidated by the cryptic as it presents itself. So, go ahead and cherish your time working with colleagues who have fun together while transforming the business world.

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Do I need a VPN for my Android smartphone?

Umar Nisar



Do I need a VPN for my Android smartphone?

Most people use a virtual private network (VPN) to safely browse the internet while they are away from home. This allows you to bypass restrictions on region-specific content and websites. So, this is maybe something you also want to use on your smartphone.

There are several scenarios in which you could use a VPN, for example if you are connecting to a public (and unsecured) Wi-Fi network.

Of course, it sometimes happens that you do not have a laptop available, but you do carry a smartphone with you. In these cases, you can consider downloading an android VPN app for your mobile device.

Is it wise to download a VPN app?

The main reason for installing a VPN app on your Android device is internet security. If you use a Wi-Fi connection a lot, for example in the catering industry or on a holiday abroad, it is certainly advisable to use a VPN.

Public connections

Do you often connect to public Wi-Fi networks via your Android phone? It is wise to think about securing your data. There is so much information stored on your phone, from online account login credentials to personal financial information. Therefore, some extra security is always a good move.

A VPN ensures that your data is encrypted and nearly impossible for third parties to access, even if you are logged into a public network with questionable security features. This means, you couldn’t get closer to real online anonymity.

Which VPN app is a good option for my Android device?

There are a lot of VPN providers. Of course, you want a service where the developers have thought carefully about how smoothly the VPN service should work on your Android device.

NordVPN is extremely popular and has more than ten million downloads worldwide. The app contains almost all the features you would expect from a good VPN and is also very focused on security and privacy.

The ‘Double VPN’ technology offers an extra layer of security by sending your connection over two separate VPN servers. NordVPN also offers a zero logs policy. This means that your data will not be stored by the company.

Not unimportantly, the NordVPN app has an automatic kill switch. This means that access to the web with your device is immediately lost if the VPN connection is accidentally lost.

NordVPN is very user-friendly. If you connect to a Wi-Fi network, a connection is automatically made with the app. NordVPN also has good performance when it comes to speed and it offers a 24/7 live chat option.

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