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What is a business?

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What is a business?

The company is defined as an agency or entrepreneurial unit specializing in commercial, industrial, or professional activities. A company can be a non-profit or non-profit organization that serves philanthropic purposes or helps promote social purposes.

The term company also refers to the collective efforts and activities of people to produce and sell goods and services for the benefit of them. The proportion of companies varies from sole proprietors to international companies. Several theoretical lines have been applied to understanding business governance, such as corporate behavior, organizational theory, and strategic management.

Business origin

Generally, a business starts with a business idea (idea) and name. Depending on the nature of your business, extensive market research may be needed to determine whether you can turn your ideas into business and whether your business can provide value to your customers. A business name can be your business’s most valuable asset. Therefore, you should carefully consider your choice. Companies operating under fictitious names must be registered with the state.

Businesses are often formed after a business plan is created. This is an official document that describes the goals and objectives of your business and the strategies for achieving those goals and objectives. When you borrow capital to start a business, business planning is almost essential.

Determining the legal structure of your business is also important. Depending on your business type, you may need to obtain a license, comply with registration requirements, and obtain a license to operate legally. In many countries, companies are considered legal entities. This means companies can own, lend, and sue.

Take the key

  • The company is defined as an organization or entrepreneurial unit dedicated to commercial, industrial, or professional activities.
  • A company may be a for-profit or non-profit organization that serves philanthropic purposes or helps promote social purposes.
  • Props companies vary proportionately from sole proprietors to international companies.

Commercial structure

Many companies are organized around a specific type of hierarchy or bureaucracy, and their position establishes roles and responsibilities. The most common structures include sole proprietorships, partnerships, corporations, and limited liability companies, making sole proprietors more common.

As the name implies, the sole owner is a business owned and operated by a natural person. There is no legal separation between business and owner. Therefore, the tax and liability of the company is the owner.

A partnership is a business relationship between two or more people who come together for business. Each partner provides resources and funds to the business and shares the business profits and losses. Shared profits and losses are recorded on each partner’s tax return.

A company is a company in which a group of people acts as a single entity. More generally, shareholders are shareholders who exchange consideration for the company’s common stock. The establishment of the company frees the owner from the financial liability of commercial debt. However, the company has tax laws that are disadvantageous to the business owner.

Because of this, a relatively new business structure is available (first available in Wyoming in 1977 and available in other states in the 1990s), limited liability company (LLC). This structure combines the tax effects of the partnership with the limited liability of the company.

Commercial size

Business sizes range from small businesses run by owners, such as family-owned restaurants, to multinational companies such as General Electric. Large companies may issue shares of the company to raise money for the business. In this case, the company is listed on the stock exchange and has reporting and operational restrictions. Alternatively, SMEs can operate more independently of the regulator.

industry

Companies can describe their activities by contacting the industry in which they do business. For example, the real estate sector, the advertising sector, or the mattress manufacturing sector are areas where businesses may exist. The term “business” is often used to refer to transactions that are related to the underlying product or service because the term “business” can be replaced with routine work and general training of the business. For example, ExxonMobil operates by supplying oil.

BUSINESS

Pros and Cons of Partnering with a Contract Research Organization

Umar Nisar

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Contract Research Organization

When it comes to developing a new drug or testing a device, you, as a sponsor, can either partner with biopharma companies or a Contract Research Organization (CRO) to perform clinical trials.

However, you should not forget that a pharmaceutical company might not be well-equipped to perform trials at a large scale. This is why partnering with a CRO makes much more sense because they have a team of experts and scientists who are particularly trained to perform such trials.

To give you a better understanding of how this partnership works, here we list three pros and cons of working with a Contract Research Organization for a clinical trial.

Pros

Sponsors can assign most of their duties to CROs

One of the best reasons why sponsors prefer working with Contract Research Organizations is that they can assign all their duties to the CRO team. This enables the sponsors to perform a clinical trial even when they cannot be there to monitor the trials.

However, for this, you need to work with a reliable and efficient CRO team so that you get the desired results with the fastest possible turnaround time.

The necessary resources are already in place

The biggest advantage of partnering with a Contract Research Organization is that they already have a robust team that is ready to come onboard. They have all the necessary resources in place, be it the team for data collection and management, trial candidates, scientists and so on.

As a result, you can get on-demand services, where you do not have to end up waiting for months or probably more than a year just for the team to get set up. This saves both time and money for you.

They help you with their global reach

When you plan to market your drug in a new country, it is mandatory to conduct a clinical research study in that country before making any moves. Now, this can be a costly affair for any sponsor but partnering with a CRO with a global reach helps the cause significantly because they have facilities and teams located in different parts of the world.

As a result, you get immediate access to a global audience without having to spend a large amount of money to set up a team from scratch.

Cons

Dealing with consequences because of the lapse from CRO

As mentioned above, delegating all the duties to a CRO is a great benefit but it can also act as a major bane, if you do not partner with the right CRO. You cannot have any assurance that the trials will be completed on time or you will get the results with no flaws. One should not forget that, at the end of the day, it is the sponsor who has to deal with the consequences even if the CRO falters with their work.

Therefore, you can choose to partner with a renowned company like Jubilant Biosys that provides comprehensive drug discovery services to global industries through its locations across India and the USA.

Difficulty in communication at times

As sponsors, you would not be able to oversee everything that goes in a trial and that is exactly why you hire a CRO team at the first place. However, the downside to this is that there can be a lack of communication between you two and it becomes even more of an issue when the trial is on a large scale with hundreds and thousands of people involved in it.

Requires multiple audits

A Contract Research Organization deals with multiple clinical trials and as a result, can end up juggling their resources from one project to another based on the requirement. As a sponsor, you might have to do multiple audits during the timer period of a trial to ensure that your project is not jeopardized due to such activities.

Essentially, this is more of a “must-haves” than a con because performing such audits will ensure that you get the desired results.

Final Thoughts

When parenting with a CRO, the cons need not be a huge problem if you work with an efficient and trust-worthy Contract Research Organization in India like Jubilant Biosys, that offer flexible business models and quality solutions incorporated with the best practices. Hence, you should make sure that you make the decision on that front.

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BUSINESS

Application of Silk Screen Printing Mesh

Umar Nisar

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Silk Screen Printing Mesh

In this post, I will be talking about the application of silk screen printing mesh.

Without a doubt, silk screen printing is a popular printing technique. It is used by companies all over the world for printing designs on different materials and products. Screen printing is not a new technique; it has been used for over 100 years in the artistic and commercial industries.

In recent times, this technique bonfilt is used for printing designs, images, logos, etc. on different materials including tote bags, wood, paper, glass, ceramics, circuits, T-shirts, and more.

Its high printing efficiency and convenient operation are the reasons why this technique has gained popularity. There are several things that must be considered in the screen-printing technique. One of the most crucial components is silk screen printing mesh.

Types of Silk Screen Printing Mesh

Currently, there are two types of printing mesh: polyester and nylon printing mesh. The most commonly used mesh is a polyester screen printing mesh. There are many reasons for choosing polyester mesh. Polyester mesh offers unique advantages like it is water and chemical resistant, its properties remain stable, low scalability even when extreme pressure is applied, and offers highly accurate printing.

Industries That Use Silk Screen Printing

Polyester silk screen printing mesh is used in various industries. It can be used for printing circuit boards like the electric wire circuit board for computers.

The largest use of silk screen printing is in the textile industry. This technique can be used on a range of fabrics such as organza, cotton, polyester, and silk. After that, these fabrics are turned into finished goods like dresses, t-shirts, skirts, and many others.

Also, silk screen printing can be used on linen, curtains, bed sheets, upholstery, drapes, bedcovers, and cushion covers.

Another application of polyester silk screen printing mesh is in the ceramics or glass industry. This is because you need to reproduce a design several times. With screen printing,

Silkscreen printing is also used extensively in the advertising and marketing industry. Handouts, posters, advertisements, flyers, and other points of sale products use screen printing. One of the reasons to use silk screen printing is because it is time-saving and cost-effective. Since the companies will need a limited edition of printing, electronic or digital printing can be quite expensive. Hence, screen printing is the right option.

Moreover, the sports industry also utilizes screen printing. Mostly, sports companies use silk screen printing for printing collectible items and souvenirs. Products with logos of popular teams such as sweatshirts, caps, keychains, baseball bats, mousepads, and much more.

All in all, the silk screen printing mesh has a wide range of applications. Wherever you look, you can find products with screen printing. Polyester silk screen printing mesh has many advantages. It is water and chemical resistant, capable of bearing extreme pressure, it has strong tensile strength and precise printing.

There are a plethora of industries that use screen printing mesh. Sports, glass, ceramics, marketing, clothing, household, and computer industries are some of the industries that use screen printing mesh.

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BUSINESS

Moisture analyzer for plastic

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Moisture analyzer for plastic

Moisture analyzer for plastic

In plastics, the water content is an important parameter, so an accurate measurement is essential to guarantee the manufacturing and processing quality of these materials. Moisture affects the productivity of almost all plastics, especially hygroscopic equivalents such as nylon (polyamide) and polychlorinated terephthalate (PBAT).

However, when these plastics are formed or processed at unacceptable humidity levels, structural or visual defects occur, which is a major problem. Another equally important factor is a deep understanding of the water content because wet casting degrades the performance of certain degradable polymers and materials. There are many acceptable methods for determining the water content in plastics, but most traditional techniques have their own shortcomings, of which precision and speed are the main problems.

Issues with Measuring Plastic Moisture Content

Traditionally, the plastics’ moisture content has been established through Karl Fischer titration (ASTM D 6869) or through methods using vacuum and heat to remove moisture until a constant weight is achieved. Conversely, these techniques are not only time-intensive but also depend heavily on the thermal stability and the equilibrium water content of the polymer. This means it is important to make sure that all the moisture present in the raw material is detected and extracted effectively and that any other products that may emerge from the plastic are not confused with the water while the polymer is being heated.

Most often, the water content of about 1%–2% by weight can be safely determined through a vacuum oven at temperatures where the rate of evaporation is adequately high yet lower than the polymer’s decomposition temperature. This process is mostly carried out when testing for drying conditions prior to injection molding. Sometimes, broad line NMR can be used for establishing water fraction but this method has to be calibrated. The same holds true for NIR or IR results acquired from plastic films.

Nylon Moisture Problems

As an example of the issues associated with polymer molding, the ability and the tendency of nylon to absorb moisture represent a constant challenge. In the case of nylon, moisture can impact an array of polymer properties, which consecutively affect dimensional stability, processability, acoustic, mechanical, chemical, electrical, and optical properties, and eventually the performance of the product. In nylon, moisture behaves as a plasticizer in order to decrease the bonding and entanglement between molecules and thus boost their mobility and volume.

Nylon contaminated with moisture has a lower glass transition temperature (Tg), which makes it easier for extra crystallization to take place. In this manner, the increased moisture content can cause extreme variations in material behavior under load; for instance, it can increase ductility and reduce stiffness and strength. In due course, this introduces changes in the material’s properties and will potentially result in substandard products.

Plastic Manufacture

Currently, during the production of plastic and polymer parts, precision components that have to be defect-free and of high quality are molded. Prior to each manufacturing run, plastic manufacturers carefully dry pellets, which means they have to check moisture content intermittently until acceptable levels are achieved. Therefore, long moisture test times are major issues because they lead to a costly and extended time in the pellet dryer.

Infrared moisture balances are rapid techniques that can be used for determining moisture, although it can take 20 minutes or more to complete the process. It is also possible to fit dedicated optical sensors to pellet dryers, but these are highly specialized, costly, and need constant calibration. The SMART Q presents a novel option for determining moisture levels. This method can offer fast on-line testing along with a direct loss on drying, and since it is a primary technique, calibration is not needed. It is also easy to use; insensitive to density, color, or compound changes; and has the ability to withstand adverse manufacturing environments.

DSC 71P™ Low Moisture Analyzer employs a combination of proprietary and patented technologies to offer repeatable results and controlled heating in approximately five minutes without any need to preheat the cavity. The alternative method will take 5 to 8 hours utilizing direct oven tech  DSC 71P™

moisture analyzer enables direct moisture analysis and hence does not require calibration, unlike other spectroscopic techniques.

Compared to other direct competitors, the SMART Q moisture analyzer is faster and offers better accuracy and precision. It can quickly examine a host of plastics for moisture with an average difference of below 0.003% when compared to the air-oven technique. A recent study on the DSC 71P™  inspected five entirely different types of plastic such as nylon, rubber, ABS, polypropylene, and polycarbonate. The results revealed a close correlation with oven-achieved moisture content results, but in a fraction of the time, that is, 5 minutes instead of the usual 5 to 8 hours.

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