Moisture analyzer for plastic
In plastics, the water content is an important parameter, so an accurate measurement is essential to guarantee the manufacturing and processing quality of these materials. Moisture affects the productivity of almost all plastics, especially hygroscopic equivalents such as nylon (polyamide) and polychlorinated terephthalate (PBAT).
However, when these plastics are formed or processed at unacceptable humidity levels, structural or visual defects occur, which is a major problem. Another equally important factor is a deep understanding of the water content because wet casting degrades the performance of certain degradable polymers and materials. There are many acceptable methods for determining the water content in plastics, but most traditional techniques have their own shortcomings, of which precision and speed are the main problems.
Issues with Measuring Plastic Moisture Content
Traditionally, the plastics’ moisture content has been established through Karl Fischer titration (ASTM D 6869) or through methods using vacuum and heat to remove moisture until a constant weight is achieved. Conversely, these techniques are not only time-intensive but also depend heavily on the thermal stability and the equilibrium water content of the polymer. This means it is important to make sure that all the moisture present in the raw material is detected and extracted effectively and that any other products that may emerge from the plastic are not confused with the water while the polymer is being heated.
Most often, the water content of about 1%–2% by weight can be safely determined through a vacuum oven at temperatures where the rate of evaporation is adequately high yet lower than the polymer’s decomposition temperature. This process is mostly carried out when testing for drying conditions prior to injection molding. Sometimes, broad line NMR can be used for establishing water fraction but this method has to be calibrated. The same holds true for NIR or IR results acquired from plastic films.
Nylon Moisture Problems
As an example of the issues associated with polymer molding, the ability and the tendency of nylon to absorb moisture represent a constant challenge. In the case of nylon, moisture can impact an array of polymer properties, which consecutively affect dimensional stability, processability, acoustic, mechanical, chemical, electrical, and optical properties, and eventually the performance of the product. In nylon, moisture behaves as a plasticizer in order to decrease the bonding and entanglement between molecules and thus boost their mobility and volume.
Nylon contaminated with moisture has a lower glass transition temperature (Tg), which makes it easier for extra crystallization to take place. In this manner, the increased moisture content can cause extreme variations in material behavior under load; for instance, it can increase ductility and reduce stiffness and strength. In due course, this introduces changes in the material’s properties and will potentially result in substandard products.
Currently, during the production of plastic and polymer parts, precision components that have to be defect-free and of high quality are molded. Prior to each manufacturing run, plastic manufacturers carefully dry pellets, which means they have to check moisture content intermittently until acceptable levels are achieved. Therefore, long moisture test times are major issues because they lead to a costly and extended time in the pellet dryer.
Infrared moisture balances are rapid techniques that can be used for determining moisture, although it can take 20 minutes or more to complete the process. It is also possible to fit dedicated optical sensors to pellet dryers, but these are highly specialized, costly, and need constant calibration. The SMART Q presents a novel option for determining moisture levels. This method can offer fast on-line testing along with a direct loss on drying, and since it is a primary technique, calibration is not needed. It is also easy to use; insensitive to density, color, or compound changes; and has the ability to withstand adverse manufacturing environments.
DSC 71P™ Low Moisture Analyzer employs a combination of proprietary and patented technologies to offer repeatable results and controlled heating in approximately five minutes without any need to preheat the cavity. The alternative method will take 5 to 8 hours utilizing direct oven tech DSC 71P™
moisture analyzer enables direct moisture analysis and hence does not require calibration, unlike other spectroscopic techniques.
Compared to other direct competitors, the SMART Q moisture analyzer is faster and offers better accuracy and precision. It can quickly examine a host of plastics for moisture with an average difference of below 0.003% when compared to the air-oven technique. A recent study on the DSC 71P™ inspected five entirely different types of plastic such as nylon, rubber, ABS, polypropylene, and polycarbonate. The results revealed a close correlation with oven-achieved moisture content results, but in a fraction of the time, that is, 5 minutes instead of the usual 5 to 8 hours.
Saad Mushtaq was born and raised in the busy city of Abbottabad. As a journalist, Saad Mushtaq has contributed to many online publications including the PAK Today and the Huffing Post. In regards to academics, Saad Mushtaq earned a degree in business from the Abbottabad UST, Havelian. Saad Mushtaq follows the money and covers all aspects of emerging tech here at The Hear Up.Thanks
A Few Things to Check Before Hiring an Electrician
Hiring an Electrician
Many homeowners attempt to do home improvement projects themselves, and the results are often disappointing. However, trying to handle electrical work independently can lead to costly errors and injuries. Discover a few things to check before hiring an electrician to get the job done right and stay within the budget.
When looking for an electrician, the first thing to consider is whether they are properly trained. The electricians should attend a vocational school or other recognized institute to learn how to perform the work correctly. Discuss the training process to find the right team for the job.
Comparing electricians includes reviewing their relevant experience performing similar work. Homeowners should discuss the project scope with potential electricians and determine whether they have experience in that area. Also, ask for recommendations and referrals from previous satisfied customers.
Once homeowners have a list of prospects, check online reviews to narrow down the possibilities based on customer experiences. Often, people discover more about an electrician or other service providers by reading reviews and talking to others. Also, discuss referrals with neighbors, co-workers, friends, and families to determine which services handled the work most efficiently.
Licensed and Insured
Verify your state’s requirement for license and insurance and then ensure the electrician is compliant to protect your most valuable asset. It is often tempting to hire an unlicensed or uninsured electrician to cut costs, but that often adds up to spending more money in the long run. Plus, you could be liable if an accident or injury occurs on your premises, adding even more to the costs.
Verify Credentials and Permits
The first step to verifying an electrician’s expertise is to inquire about licenses and insurance. The next step is to verify these credentials and permits to ensure they are valid and current. A quality electrician will immediately provide documentation for customers to verify.
Talk to Several Electricians
After comparing reviews and verifying credentials, consult with several electricians to find the right one for the project. While all of them might be qualified for the job, homeowners should find an electrician that understands their vision and wants to work with them every step of the way. Take notes during the interviews to review and determine the best candidate for the job.
While qualifications are crucial to getting the job done correctly, homeowners must also stay within their budget to avoid financial stress associated with unexpected surprises. An electrician should provide a precise estimate and include everything to be done to complete the project for homeowners to plan for payment. The goal is to find a qualified electrician that provides all the services needed for the most competitive price.
Look for Outstanding Customer Service
Finally, it helps to work with electricians dedicated to providing the highest level of customer service and that stand behind their work. Inquire about warranties and other guarantees to verify the project will be completed according to specifications. Then choose the electrician who communicates clearly and makes you feel comfortable about their skills.
Hiring an electrician is often critical to getting the job done right and avoiding additional costs related to injuries and errors. Use this checklist to find a qualified electrician that provides outstanding service within your budget.
Khalil ur Rehman is a proud born and raised in Abbottabad. Khalil has worked as a journalist for nearly a decade having contributed to several large publications including the Yahoo News and The Verge. As a journalist for The Hear Up, Khalil covers climate and science news. [email protected]