CNC blog readers often ask me how to design a stepper motor and choose which to apply now. What are the most important criteria when choosing a stepper motor?
Anyone who has ever purchased a Closed Loop Stepper Motors knows that there are many stepper motors in various designs, sizes, and performance classes on the market. You can easily track things without proper setup and stand in front of an array of engines like the ideal “Ochs vorm Berg”.
But do not panic! Closed Loop Stepper Motors design and selection is not rocket science either. You just must keep a few simple things in mind. In this article, I will give you the best advice for designing and selecting stepper motors. Here you will learn:
- What kinds of stepper motors are there?
- What are the main characteristics of the stepper motor?
- How to calculate the required performance data from your application
Well, fresh to work. Do not waste time and read quickly!
What types of stepper motors are available?
A Closed Loop Stepper Motors is a motor, which can be seen mechanically, to perform a single partial revolution – one step – by appropriate control. Many steps together lead in turn. You can see a nice animation on Nanotec. In principle, stepper motors are divided into the following three designs:
1.Closed Loop Stepper Motors frequency
In the impedance stepper motor, the rotor is designed without winding copper and without magnet. This rotor is made of soft magnetic material (fine iron) and has small teeth in its vicinity.
If you turn this operating shaft in the off state, you will not notice any resistance or lock.
When the stator is activated, the field lines pass through the soft magnetic rotor. Since field lines find a shorter path back to the stator through the teeth, the force acts on the rotor leading to its rotation. By intelligently activating the stator, the rotor is always rotated step by step.
Due to the sophisticated control electronics and the lack of self-locking (no magnets!), Frequency drives are only suitable for specialized applications.
2.Permanent magnet stepping motor
The permanent magnet stepper motors usually have a stator with two winding threads (4 connections). The rotor is equipped with a permanent magnet. If you turn this Closed Loop Stepper Motors that is turned off and unplugged, you can feel sudden dizziness. The lock is noticeable due to the north-south magnet on the rotor.
The most common version is the so-called Closed Loop Stepper Motors clutch pole. Due to its simple design, the pole clutch Closed Loop Stepper Motors is the cheapest type of Closed Loop Stepper Motors on the market. Clutch stepper motors, however, have defects of step size and torque compared to hybrid stepper motors.
3.Hybrid stepper motor
Hybrid stepper motors combine the advantages of frequency drives and permanent stepper motors. In the case of motors with a hybrid stepper, a permanent magnet is placed on the rotor. At the same time, two soft sprockets are placed, half of which are offset. In this design, the hybrid Closed Loop Stepper Motors achieves higher torque with the most accurate splitting of steps. Almost all stepper motors that you can buy currently on the market are hybrid stepper motors.
The most important characteristics of the stepper design are …?
To distinguish between stepper motors, you must know what is especially important:
Torque and torque hold
Torque is one of the most important criteria when choosing a stepper motor. Since the torque is largely dependent on the speed, there is also a fixed or suspended torque. This indicates what the engine can do in a deadlock.
Step angle and number of steps in the revolution
For each stepper motor, the step angle is indicated on the board or on the datasheet. For example, a step angle of 1.8 degrees means that the engine makes one complete revolution in 200 steps. (1.8 ° * 200 = 360 ° == one cycle)
By controlling the Closed Loop Stepper Motors with split half, quarter, or eighth, you can improve screen resolution. Before buying, you should think exactly how to position you with a stepper motor.
Number of stages and types of communication
The Closed Loop Stepper Motors can be connected as follows:
- Do not eavesdrop on money
- Tap center
- Common eavesdropping
Closed Loop Stepper Motors with 4-phase connections is usually a bipolar stepper motor. This means that the current is transmitted during one stage in one direction and in the other (the poles = two poles).
The six-link Closed Loop Stepper Motors is usually a unipolar stepper motor, but under certain conditions, it can also be controlled by a dipole.
Inductance and resistance coils
Now he is getting electricity. To ensure that the engine also reaches the nominal power or nominal torque specified on the board, you must supply it with a voltage source. The mains supply must be able to provide corresponding high currents without voltage drop. Closed Loop Stepper Motors controllers work with the current control, so you don’t have to worry about the current.
Attention, stepper motors can be connected in series and in parallel. I will add more to this and choose the power source at this point.
The current maximum stage
The current stage or the current stage specified in the datasheet or nameplate should not be overridden. Otherwise, the Closed Loop Stepper Motors may overheat and fail.
The Closed Loop Stepper Motors flange dimension is usually standardized according to NEMA (National Association of American Electrical Appliance Manufacturers). The most common sizes are Nema 17 (aperture pattern 42 x 42), Nema 23 (aperture pattern 56 x 56) and Nema 42 (with an aperture pattern of 86 x 86 for connected flange).
You can easily use the drive shaft for Closed Loop Stepper Motorseg peer connection using Rotex coupling. These joints with a plastic fixation have proven themselves in practice as they dampen vibrations and shocks well.
Position and angle of measurement
All cheap and common stepper motors have no built-in angle or speed sensor. In the Standard Edition, stepper motors are “initially” only suitable for control tasks.
To format drive 0’s position when turning on the device, you must first manipulate a reference key while running an exact reference. The zero position is determined by the reference range. Since you control the Closed Loop Stepper Motors with a specified number of steps, you can easily calculate how many steps the Closed Loop Stepper Motors should move from the reference point.
The disadvantage of this type of position measurement is that the step overload occurs when the motor is overloaded, which causes the calculated position to be invalidated.
If you need high accuracy GPS positioning and repetition or a control ring in your application, you should also integrate the rotation angle sensor or position sensor into the drive assembly.
I did, as far as gray theory! But how do I design the right Closed Loop Stepper Motors now?
This is how you calculate the required performance data from your application
Calculation of a Closed Loop Stepper Motors for a direct rotary motor
At this point, the required torque for the Closed Loop Stepper Motors is given directly from your application. You just must think about whether the torque needs additional increment in order to achieve a certain acceleration or acceleration time.
Calculation of stepper motors for helical gear
If you are using a Closed Loop Stepper Motors to drive a screw gear (like a trapezoidal screw, ball screw, threaded rod, etc.), i.e. converting the rotational motion of the Closed Loop Stepper Motors into a linear motion, you can use the following thumb base:
Spindle pitch r
Linear travel speed v_min is required
The driving force required for the gear in an axial direction F_min
The minimum speed required for a Closed Loop Stepper Motorsn_min = v_min / p
Minimum torque required for Closed Loop Stepper Motors M_min = (F_min * p) / (2 * pi)
For example, in order to determine the driving force needed for a CNC milling table, the maximum cutting force that occurs for the required driving force in the axial direction can be used. Because the bottom line should have at least the power to transfer the power of the chips.
Calculate the chip forces for the most difficult cutting and use it in the above formula to determine the torque required for a stepper motor. In this article, you will learn more about calculating cutting forces when grinding.
Of course, you also must include protection. Otherwise, you will not be able to grind properly as drive friction increases. I would cautiously suggest a safety factor of 2 at this point so that the specified Closed Loop Stepper Motors torque is two times higher than the calculated torque. Additional torque also helps to accelerate the linear table if high dynamics are required.
Saad Mushtaq was born and raised in the busy city of Memphis. As a journalist, Saad Mushtaq has contributed to many online publications including the USA Today and the Huffing Post. In regards to academics, Saad Mushtaq earned a degree in business from the University Of Texas and an master’s degree from the University of Tennessee. Saad Mushtaq follows the money and covers all aspects of emerging tech here at The Hear Up.Thanks
How I Created a Community from my Brand on Instagram
Brand on Instagram
Nowadays, if you are a person that knows anything about the importance of building a community, then you will know that there is no better way to get it done than through the ever-growing social media platforms. So many people have adapted to using these platforms that it is practically impossible to find a single individual that is not engaged in at least one. Going through all the existing social media platforms would take forever and would likely need a helping hand from a marketing team such as social media agency Bali. So I am going to keep my focus on only one platform today, Instagram. It is a social platform that has topped the charts to be amongst the best and it is with good reason. It has been at the forefront in bringing people together and a means through which people will share information. People will use such platforms for different purposes but in this article, I will take you through how I created a community from my brand on Instagram. This is going to be the most educational tip you will ever come across so I suggest you take notes. If you have any interest in building your own community through this platform then the following tips will be beyond handy.
The first and very most important step I took was to make sure I knew who exactly I wanted to be part of my community. The best thing about Instagram is that it is consistent with billions of people and out of these entire people I was sure I could not possibly luck individuals with the same brand as I did. What this meant for me was that these people will without a doubt show interest in anything I post on Instagram as well as the methods of promotion I will use. This is to say that I had already envisioned that whenever I posted something, it would be of relevance to them and they would see it. This worked perfectly as using hashtags related to my brand and searching for relevant results would lead me to everyone with the same brand as me and liking their posts automatically got me exposed to them and they would without a doubt make sure to follow me. That, ladies and gentlemen, was the first step towards growing my community on Instagram and it is guaranteed to work perfectly.
The one thing that has always helped me while socializing with people is the fact that I came to the realization that it is not healthy to have the spotlight focused only on you. If you ever want people to take part in whatever you are doing, show appreciation by making sure you show interest and share the little they are doing. The moment I started gaining a following on Instagram, people started taking note of my brand and promoting it in their own little way. This only served as a small opening to even greater potential. What I did to make sure that my community continued to grow is that whenever anyone made an effort to showcase my brand, however minimal the effort might have been, I made sure to share that with the rest of the now growing community. This helps in that when one person sees the other getting such attention they will want to be part of the same. By doing this I was paving way for even more people to come and be part of my community thus growing it tremendously.
The two skills that helped me a great deal in building a community on Instagram were observation, and the ability to want to learn. You see I was certain that as much as I wanted to build a community, there is a lot I had to learn and who is better to learn from other than the very people you want to associate with. This meant that I had to take a keen look at whatever they would post and the hashtags they would use. Just so I could not overlook any detail, as minor as it could be. Other than mare observation, I had to admit that the very people I wanted to grow a community from through my brand on Instagram could have had more exposure and experience than I did. With this realization, I made sure to take notes where necessary just to know what needed to be done. In growing a community from a brand on Instagram I learned that humility is vital.
Building a brand on Instagram can be effortless but only if you decide to view it as so and put in all the work and dedication required to get where you want to be. The one thing that had me have my head above the water all along was the lesson that it does not really matter whether you get 0 likes, always continue promoting the work of your hands as people are always watching and with time they will celebrate your wins, this time, as part of your very own community.
Top 3 Self Driving Car Companies to Watch out in 2020
Many organizations are working on developing self-driving cars and hardware for autonomous cars of all types.
In this race to build a completely self-driving car, some companies are further in terms of real-world testing and practical experience than others.
We will have a look at all the top 3 self-driving car companies in the world.
Top 3 Autonomous Vehicle Companies
On the basis of the number of vehicles testing and the number of kilometers driven, Waymo tops the list with over 32 million kilometers driven on the road.
Their cars are equipped with advanced cameras, LiDAR, and radar sensors along with a microphone that detects sirens from emergency vehicles
Currently, Waymo is testing is the prototype of fully driverless SAE Autonomy Level 4 vehicles in Phoenix and Arizona.
Waymo has recently set up additional testing facilities in Michigan and California to test its cars in winter conditions.
The next on the list is Tesla.
Tesla is putting enormous efforts to develop a fully autonomous vehicle.
Although Tesla has excluded the Light Detection and Ranging(LIDAR), Tesla instead prefers ultrasonic, radar, and 2D cameras for autonomous operations.
The company has till now collected data from 600,000 Tesla’s with having collectively driven more than 3.2 billion kilometers world-wide.
One can’t deny the fact that Tesla has built up a level of experience with some auto-pilot features of SAE level 2.
Reports state that their prototyping vehicles have already reached SAE level 5.
Argo AI is an independent startup that started in 2017, with a $1 billion investment from Ford Motor Company. The company has also attracted a $2.6 billion investment from Volkswagen.
Argo AI today is testing over 100 vehicles in almost 6 cities of the United States.
Technically it’s still an independent venture. Unlike other manufacturers, AgroAi doesn’t foresee producing its own cars. Rather Ford and VW want Argo AI to manufacture self-driving car technology for other companies starting with service-based firms like the Robo-taxis.
There are quite few other companies that are promisingly working on developing a self-driving car like the ones Baidu and GM cruise developed.
Even startups like Cruise Automation, Tu Simple, and Zoox are working towards developing AI for autonomous vehicles. E-learning platforms like Udacity has already launched their courses on self-driving cars that teach how to make one.
While completely autonomous vehicles won’t become mainstream in the next few years, Waymo, Tesla, and Argo AI are making significant advances in the self-driving car market.
With improvements in IoT technologies, strides toward fully autonomous vehicles are sure to follow.
As IoT technology continues to improve, strides toward fully autonomous vehicles are sure to follow.
[Solved]Mac Starts to Prohibitory Symbol After macOS Big Sur Update
macOS Big Sur will be the next version of Mac OS, announced at WWDC 2020. It is again named after the landscape in California but skips the macOS 10 version to macOS 11. According to the macOS Big Sur preview from Apple, the new features mainly sit in the new control center, interface and notification center as well as improved apps such as Safari, Messages and Maps.
However, the new OS doesn’t always bring good news. Here is a list of macOS 11 known issues and fixes. In this article, we will specifically discuss the Mac booting into a prohibitory symbol on the screen after macOS Big Sur update.
What does it mean when your Mac boots to a prohibitory symbol?
When a circle with a line cross it appears on your Mac’s monitor instead of a login screen or desktop, it is very likely that your Mac doesn’t support running macOS Big Sur. Even though the OS can be successfully downloaded on the startup disk, the relevant hardware is unable to install the OS nor launch it for use. It is a very typical problem people encounter when they update their Mac computers.
What Macs are compatible with macOS 11 Big Sur?
It is recommended to check the system requirements before you upgrade your Mac, especially before a major OS version upgrade. Some models can run macOS Catalina but are not necessarily compatible with macOS Big Sur.
macOS 11 Big Sur can be running on Macs including:
- MacBook models from early 2015 or later
- MacBook Air/Pro models from 2013 or later
- Mac mini models from 2014 or later
- Mac Pro models from 2013 or later
- iMac models from 2014 or later
- iMac Pro models
By checking the Mac’s hardware information, you can go to Apple logo and About This Mac to know your Mac model.
How to fix the prohibitory problem issue?
Now you know macOS Big Sur is not the right OS to run on your Mac, but how to get rid of the downloaded macOS 11 files and restore the Mac? Don’t panic. The steps are very easy.
Step 1: Boot your Mac into Recovery Mode.
You need to start or restart your Mac and immediately press down Command, Option and R keys together. Release the keys until you see a loading screen. The booting process will be a lot slower than usual. Then you will be led to the OS X Utilities or macOS Utilities window.
Step 2: Back up files from the Mac.
If you are afraid of data loss, you can use Target Disk Mode or data recovery software to get the important files off the Mac first.
Step 3: Reinstall OS
You can choose to format the hard drive first in Disk Utility and reinstall OS. Also, you can directly reinstall OS by selecting Reinstall OS X or macOS and clicking Continue. You just need to follow the wizard to finish the reinstallation.
Before you update to a newer OS, do remember to check the compatibility first in case you will boot to a prohibitory symbol during the installation. If the issue is happening, you can easily restore the Mac to a bootable state. macOS 11 Big Sur is a beta now and will be released to public in fall 2020, so it is recommended to upgrade after it is officially released if your Mac is compatible.
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