History of witches
Witches ;One of the most representative figures of Halloween is the witch, the classic stereotype of it, of course, the old woman,full of warts, gray hair, and her typical implements such as the broom and the pot of potions. However, behind this character, there is a whole amount of information that covers practically all periods of human history, from its beginnings (including prehistoric theories) to the present day.
The witch is a portent that has accompanied us practically forever, either as a horror character, as the evil character in fairy tales or as that rare woman in our neighborhood to whom we secretly discuss aspects of our lives so that she reveal to us our future.
Witches are beings or people who can use witchcraft, which is defined in turn as a set of magical abilities that are used to cause damage. This last idea; however, it is not entirely clear, because witchcraft has had different purposes beyond causing evil or at least not directly. Skills such as divination, transformation, telekinesis, among others, are considered part of witchcraft although, per se, they should not be harmful to others.
In this sense, the negative connotation of the term witchcraft comes from the relationship that was given to Satanism in the Middle Ages, which has endured and is maintained, even though many sorcerers advocate the eradication of the evil stereotype for certain considerations. religious regarding modern witchcraft that we will see later in the section related to the phenomenon in today’s world.
The term is related to magic, which is defined as the art of producing events that go against what we consider natural acts or laws.
Magic by itself has no negative or positive connotations; it all depends on the context: if you are talking about witchcraft, satanism, occultism, etc., it goes without saying that the term is negative there; While if you talk about fairies, fantastic creatures, magicians of the courts of the ancient kings and epic in general, there the term has positive connotations.
There may even be contexts in which the term magic has both connotations at the same time, as is the case of the Harry Potter saga, where some wizards and witches practice white or good magic, and those who practice black magic or bad.
In such contexts, these differentiating terms are usually used, generally dichotomous, such as white-black, light-dark, angelic-demonic, good-bad magic …
The word witch, besides, is not usually exclusive to a single type of character as the classic Halloween witch could be, it can also be used to refer to healers and shamans of tribes or rural towns (in this case with the word witch, in masculine), or also to refer to the practitioners of some neo-pagan religions or cults with magical overtones such as the African or Romani religions. As for what witches do, the terms used are varied, although they are usually seen as synonyms: spells, hexes, spells, enchantments …
Magical thinking has been around almost forever
Witchcraft has probably been around since humans first formed into groups. The sense of the use of magic in ordinary people, such as the belief in the power of words and sentences, can be found in all ancient societies.
Some prehistoric works of art depict magical rites for areas of life spell, love spell, such as hunting, in addition to the usual religious rites that were dedicated to primitive deities.
Shamanism, which is about communicating with the spirit world through jobs, dreams, and meditative trance, is probably the oldest religion.
There was already witchcraft in the ancient Sumerian civilization; specifically, in Babylon began the elaborate the demonological study, because its mythology was quite rich. The Sumerians believed that the world was full of spirits and that most of them were hostile.
Each person was supposed to have a spirit that would protect him from demons and enemies, plus a diverse array of magic spells and amulets that he could use in defense against them.
In ancient Egypt, witches used their wisdom about magic amulets, spells, and concoctions to twist cosmic powers in their favor or in favor of their clients, who in this case was those belonging to the political class. Since then, witchcraft has been used for a commercial purpose, as is often done today.
For their part, the Greeks had their own form of magic whose concept revolved around a kind of religious cult known as Theurgy, which consisted of the practice of rituals to invoke the action of the gods and other entities belonging to the plane divine.
Another inferior form of magic was Mageia (etymological origin of the word the magic that we use in Latin languages), which was closer to hidden witchcraft and was practiced by individuals who claimed to have knowledge and powers to help certain people or to harm their enemies.
At the end of the Golden Age, during the height of the Mycenaean Civilization, the Greek pantheon adopted the Carian goddess, Hecate, and gave her the title of goddess of witchcraft and Queen of ghosts, also giving her a tripled image (a three-headed woman) in its iconography.
According to myth, Hecate was the daughter of two-second generation titans, Asteria and Perses, and obtained her powers as a gift from Zeus.
In pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican civilizations, shamanism had an important weight. Religious beliefs revolved around powerful deities who controlled natural phenomena and aspects of life itself and shamans were the people chosen as the bridge between the supernatural and incomprehensible world and the earth plane.
One of the most widely used practices in these civilizations was a human sacrifice as a payment for blood for the gods to provide prosperity in economic activity, although there was also a long tradition of making amulets and healing.
Some argue, however, that the real roots of witchcraft and magic as we envision them today stem from the Celts,a diverse group of Iron Age tribal societies that flourished between 700 BC and 100 AD in various areas of Europe.
Just as great metalworkers and magnificent artists themselves, some Celtic peoples were also profusely spiritual; their religion was pantheistic, which means that they related the divinity with certain phenomena of nature.
Around 350 BC, a priestly class known as the Druids had been developed who was in charge of predicting the future, healing, and some social aspects such as basic education and the law.
The Celts’ religious beliefs and practices, their love for the land, and their veneration for trees
(the oak in particular) became what was later known as paganism, although this label is also used for polytheistic beliefs. of the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. For centuries, mixes between Celtic beliefs and rituals from other Indo-European groups gave rise to magical practices (potion making and spells) that were collectively known as the witchcraft of the medieval period.
Magic in the Middle Ages
The earliest Christian traditions related to saints and divine relics gave rise to many forms of amulets that were allusive to magic related to early Christianity, which was used to attract and convert pagans. However, in the 5th century AD, the influential Christian theologian Saint Augustine of Hippo affirmed that everything related to magic was an invention of the devil to guide humanity away from Christian truth; He also argued that neither Satan nor the witches could have any real supernatural power or might be able to effectively invoke magic. of any kind, that it was a “mistake of the heathen” to believe in any other supernatural power than that of God. Therefore, if witches were given as powerless, the Church saw no need to deal with their spells or bother to track them. In fact, it was like this for a long time:
Between the 8th and 9th centuries several characters dismissed their own belief in witches, such as the influential Bishop Agobardo de Lyon repudiated the belief that witches could rain, fly at night or change their shape;
There was also Saint Boniface, who said that one’s belief in witches was anti-Christian. For his part, Charlemagne, King of the Franks prohibited the burning of the supposed witches because he considered it a pagan practice.
But at the same time, the Church was beginning to influence civil law to create laws against witchcraft and to establish the Latin word “maleficium”, which originally meant doing evil, giving derogatory and satanic connotations to magical practices.
Magic became a crime against society and heresy against God. The Leptinnes Council of 744 drew up a list of superstitions prohibiting sacrifices on behalf of the saints and requiring the renunciation of demon worship (referring to the ancient Norse gods’ Thor and Odin) as part of the Christian baptism ceremony (remember that there was once a relationship between Norse mythology and Christianity when the latter came to northern Europe).
In medieval tradition, the Tempestarii was a magician who dwelt among ordinary people and who had the power to create or prevent storms at will. Anyone reputed as such was the object of respect, fear, or hatred in rural areas.
Church authorities credited the belief by saying that God allowed the devil and witches to carry out these acts as a punishment for evil in the world. Still, the Church banned superstitious remedies against witchcraft such as storm-dissipating spells and protective amulets, and brought before them prescribed prayer, the sacraments, and the invocation of the name of God.
Before the 13th and 14th centuries, witchcraft, beyond what people believed, had come to mean a set of beliefs and practices that included spell healing, ointments, and concoctions; he barely ventured into the supernatural through divination and clairvoyance.
In the 13th century, some cults related to pagan beliefs and rituals became directly satanic. Around the year 1208, Pope Innocent III began a persecution of a group of religious heretics are known as the Cathars, who believed in a universe where God and Satan were entities of equal power that were at odds; In that sense, God had created the essence and the heavens, while the Devil had created the Earth and the the material world, a belief similar to that of the 1st century Gnostics. The Church discredited the Cathars by spreading stories about Devil worship rituals and this gave rise to a series of conflicts that led to a crusade against heresy.
The end of this conflict came with the extermination of practically all the Cathars in 1229. The Inquisition also originated from this, whose objective was to search for and punish the few remaining Cathar heretics and compel them through torture to change their beliefs or else murder them.
Pope Gregory IX assigned the Dominican Order the duty to lead the Inquisition, it could act on its behalf and with full authority, but it was not until 1252 when Pope Innocent IV expressly authorized the use of torture among the accused. Over time, both Christian churches and secular (non-religious) organizations worked together to persecute witches.
Also in the 13th century, the leading Christian theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas argued that the world was full of evil and dangerous demons who were trying to lead people down the path of temptation, and thus began to associate witchcraft with sex.
Why you should hire a top appeal lawyer
The trial attorneys should not deal with the appeal as they may find them underpaying. This underestimation is usually the result of several factors. Prosecuting counsel often takes more time than appealing counsel because the procedures governing appeals are not familiar to the proceeding and have no experience in the development of efficient methods of dealing with an appeal.
The challenge can be overcome by a competent Robert Sirianni top appeal lawyer at Brownstone Law. Effective advocacy of appeals involves long experiences. This skill is supported by regular expertise as an appellate lawyer. There is no alternative for a consistent learning experience in properly digesting and summarization of records, isolating issues from records, writing appropriate briefs, and making convincing oral arguments.
An appeal lawyer can add a new perspective.
The lawyer understands the evidence as a part of their experiences. It has its benefits, but it’s also inconvenient since no matter how good a lawyer can be, this immersion level generates blind spots. A good lawyer develops and gives the court a core theory. The lawyer must, therefore, choose a few paths compared with others.
The court present concerns regarding the documents or issues which are not yet addressed by any parties. The lawyers from both sides are so busy in their fights that the Court of Appeal takes care of the concerns where they had no issue or portions of the record.
The toughest questions against lawyers are about those issues they had never taken into account. In their approaches to their cases, they had tunnel vision.
An appeal lawyer examines the case freshly and is in the same position as an appeal judge in this respect. This perspective can enable the team to correct its course when needed, and develop a core theory of appeal based on the actual record, and not the expected record. The appeal lawyer must look at the whole thing more honestly and thoroughly than the prosecutor.
An appeal lawyer understands the appeal judges.
Judges of all trials and appeals follow orders to enforce the rules fairly and correctly. But they address problems from different places: a trial court reflects views on the evidence and has developments based on the level of the event.
In contrast, an appeal court usually sees the case for the first time as the judge begins reading the briefs. The parties have one or two briefs and then an argument to prove their points. An appeal lawyer has the expertise and knowledge to help leverage these resources and utilize this time and space.
However, just as importantly, the attorney at appeal understands the importance of implementing the correct standard of review properly by the appellant judges, effectively developing the law in the circle of appeals and creating no precedent that would stifle proceedings.
To explore the third point, appeal judges are careful, to consider whether or not their judgments open the door for frivolous cases and create fact-intensive questions. It may drain future litigants’ resources from the courts or mislead the issue of law in ways that prevent parties from resolving disputations without a dispute.
An appeal lawyer knows how to highlight the record and construct the case on appeal.
An appeal attorney may identify and define the mistakes of the court of appeal with the most efficiency. Simultaneously, an appellate lawyer has little involvement in the subsequent case and may take a more cautious view on whether to reject — which is necessary for having a successful appellate. Experience with appeals also helps the attorney to measure the arguments more than hurt.
Every problem or argument they will add to your briefing has a considerable cost. Using weak claims dilutes and takes away the good points from the trial. Effective briefs and the preparation at an appeal level for oral argument are unique competencies that do not entirely overlap with the competence of a trial lawyer. Thus it can add considerable value if you include an attorney with appeal experience in your team.
The judges can quickly find out whether the attorney is a talented individual, his legal competencies, and how much the lawyer can be counted upon. The competent appellant can give this kind of knowledge of the judges to the court, which the trial practitioner cannot have in most of the instances. It does not always mean that the appeal practitioner always wins. However, it does mean that the well-deserved practicing appeal lawyer captivates the courts’ attention and sincere interest.
An experienced appeal lawyer will understand what the court believes. Instead of any factual issues, those are of no interest to the bench. The experienced practitioner will know how to write the statement of the case and what type of writing will catch the attention of the judges. They also correctly understand how to frame issues so that the appeal court can be impressed and increases the chances of winning the case.
ARE OPTICAL COMPARATORS REALLY WORTH THE POPULARITY? HOW IS THIS POSSIBLE FOR US TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE BEST AND AVERAGE OPTICAL COMPARATORS?
Look, it is very important for us to understand the value of an optical comparator because when we work in a lab or industrial environment, we need to use the optical comparators so that we can have the close look at even the small parts of the machines and devices. Optical comparators are literally the best devices in the optics world and yes, they have created a big difference in the usual testing and measurement processes. Optical comparators are easy to operate devices. They give accurate results and authentic views.
The use of optical comparators is so significant. In order to do the material testing in the laboratories, the researchers use the optical comparators as they give them a clear picture of the object that they want to see in the magnified form. The most important use of the optical comparators is in the industries where the machines are made and are utilized for carrying out the processes.
With the help of an optical comparator, this becomes much feasible for the examiner to see if the part is perfect to be fixed in the machine. The lenses are exceptionally great as they show the image in the wider form which makes it easy for the viewer to see the diameter, length, radius, and circumference of the smallest screws, nuts, bolts, etc. This blog is here that can let you know about the uses of the optical comparators. Read this out and see what you understand.
OPTICAL COMPARATORS IN INDUSTRIES THAT ARE THE BEST
The optical comparators that are used in industries are of the next level. Yes, they are reliable and have the most incredible resolution. The magnification power is absolutely amazing. Optical comparators are of high significance as they keep the viewer aware of the structure of the part of the machine that he wants to check. The magnitude of the usage of the device is just outstanding. You cannot find anything like that of an optical comparator as this device is totally exceptional.
This was not possible once, for anyone, to see the smallest objects for accurate measurement and inspection, but with the help of this device, it became easy. The optical comparator is the best invention in the history of optics, indeed. Knowing the fact that an optical comparator is used in the large set-ups where the machines are manufactured and are operated, we must first check if the operator is facing any difficulty while handling the device or while observing the view. This can give us a clear picture.
For the sake of getting information about the best quality optical comparators, you must read about the companies that are known for making the advance and durable optical comparators. The cost may vary from company to company and features to features.
THE AVERAGE OPTICAL COMPARATORS THAT YOU MAY NOT LIKE TO BUY:
All in all, the quality of the lenses and other parts of the optical comparators are always good but yes, in some cases the compromise is seen in the quality which is, of course, an unignorable thing. If you are planning to buy an optical comparator that can be with you in the long run, then you must look for the companies that are highly rated in this regard. Approaching them will not disappoint you at all.
The average optical comparators are not reliable and nobody should use them. Optical comparators are no doubt the best devices that should be used in every industrial or lab set-up and hence, investing in them is absolutely fine. Optical comparators are worth-having especially if they are having all the advanced features and upgraded properties. However, the basic function remains simple and facile.
There are different qualities of the optical comparators that one must consider before buying. It is the decision that should be made very smartly. Optical comparators are available even online. You can buy an optical comparator from the company through online means. This is one of the easiest ways that you can follow.
OPTICAL COMPARATORS ARE THE 1ST CHOICE EQUIPMENT SINCE DECADES
For sure, talking about the handling, the results, the operation, and the accuracy of the optical comparators is certainly very important. In almost every industry where machines are made, the optical comparators are used excessively because of the unbelievable suitability it offers to the users and the highest level of accuracy it gives to the results.
All the advantages of the optical comparators can be summed up in the statement that without an optical comparator, it was impossible to even make a watch that is there resting on your wrist right at the moment. So, this is the reason that the optical comparators have always been the number 1 choice among all the other optical instruments.
New technologies in the family in 2020
In the last years of the 20th century and the first years of the 21st century, we are witnessing unprecedented new technologies advances in the framework of the so-called «Digital Revolution», which means that many of our sons and daughters spend many hours in front of screens; television, video game monitor, mobile, computer …
From this starting point, we should not prohibit our children from using these advances, but we must be careful with them and control their use, know what our children are doing, achieve a rational use of television, the Internet, video games … being In these cases, the family is a direct supervisor of the contents of the programs, games, or websites that our children frequent … Next, we will make a few brief comments on the different technological means and some precautions that can be taken in this regard.
Today television is a fully integrated element in homes and contributes to occupy the leisure time of the whole family. Television content can often be criticized, both in its programming and in the advertising it includes, and although we may be critical in its reception, our children are not so critical. In this sense, it is important that we know what our children are seeing, perhaps watch a series with them, talk about what is happening … With this, we intend to make them have their feet on the ground so that they know how to differentiate between the real and the fantastic, and the dangerous. and the accessible.
Therefore, it will be important that television occupies your space in a commonplace and not in children’s rooms. It should be borne in mind that the rooms must be intended for rest and study, with television being an element of distraction.
Currently, there are a large number of students who have a video game console in their homes with games that on many occasions we do not even know what they are about. As in the previous case, we have to protect our children from certain junk games that educate in values different from those we want to transmit. When it comes to selecting games, let’s not let them decide for themselves.
We must favor a rational use of them. To achieve this, the following tips can be taken into account:
Choose a game that allows you to record the part of the game that has been played.
Choose games that allow more than one player to intervene, which favors playing collectively.
Avoid games that have an endless number of screens (they generate anxiety by not seeing the moment to reach the end).
Avoid games that encourage violence and destruction.
If possible, we should also encourage our children to use educational, simulation, sports, or adventure games that meet the above characteristics, can serve as a distraction, and at the same time train and develop their intelligence.
It should be noted here, that you will not only have to have some control over the type of game-used, but also the time spent on it. There are children who do not “get hooked” on these types of devices, but others find it very difficult to stop playing at any given time, half-leave a game, not play for a whole day … To avoid this type of ” addiction »to games, it will be useful for us to delimit a time in their use, that they cannot access it whenever they want and in an unlimited way, sometimes their use could be subject to the proper completion of tasks.
As we pointed out before, the improvement of technologies has had a significant impact also on communications. Today many of our students have their own mobile to communicate with their friends. Control in this area seems clearer due to the expense that it can entail if its use is excessive, but it can also lead to important risks to take into account:
Excessively frequent contacts with almost unknown people, if your son or daughter gives the phone to people they only know for a day or even through contacts from the Internet.
Obsession with the mobile that sometimes makes them shut themselves up in their world of communications with equals from a virtual point of view.
Internet on the mobile: some of them have the option to connect from their own mobile to the network, this can lead to the same risks that I will pose in the case of the Internet but with fewer limitations when having access to it at any time and time. (note, keep in mind that although our son does not have an internet contract, there are mobiles that can be connected through the wi-fi connection in certain places.
It is clear that the network offers innumerable advantages for knowledge and is a useful tool with easy accessibility, but misuse can generate family risks:
boys and girls who isolate themselves from the world in front of the computer, people who base their personal relationships on cyber contacts … in addition to the accessibility that all violent content, pornography also have … With all this, we should not be scared, but be prudent and take into account certain tips in its use:
Talk to our sons and daughters about what they do and find on the Internet.
I agree with them that they do not provide personal or family information through the network, calmly explaining the risks that these actions entail.
Be careful with mail and attachments from unknown people.
To be interested in the friendships of your sons and daughters online, especially in the chat systems, instant messaging (Messenger) and social networks (tuenti, Facebook …), we must know with whom our children are communicating and warn them of the lies that there may be in that sense in the network.
Set aside a generous time for your children to use the internet but for a specific time, it is appropriate that the computer, as in the case of television, be placed in a common area.
Arslan Fazal is a student of the Aust Abbottabad University of Science and Technology. He started his graduation in 2016 and will be graduated in 2020 Hopefully. I’m a professional article and blog writer, has written dozens of content on different topics and worked with professionals all over the globe. Feel free to contact me for any assistance. [email protected]
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