History of witches
Witches ;One of the most representative figures of Halloween is the witch, the classic stereotype of it, of course, the old woman,full of warts, gray hair, and her typical implements such as the broom and the pot of potions. However, behind this character, there is a whole amount of information that covers practically all periods of human history, from its beginnings (including prehistoric theories) to the present day.
The witch is a portent that has accompanied us practically forever, either as a horror character, as the evil character in fairy tales or as that rare woman in our neighborhood to whom we secretly discuss aspects of our lives so that she reveal to us our future.
Witches are beings or people who can use witchcraft, which is defined in turn as a set of magical abilities that are used to cause damage. This last idea; however, it is not entirely clear, because witchcraft has had different purposes beyond causing evil or at least not directly. Skills such as divination, transformation, telekinesis, among others, are considered part of witchcraft although, per se, they should not be harmful to others.
In this sense, the negative connotation of the term witchcraft comes from the relationship that was given to Satanism in the Middle Ages, which has endured and is maintained, even though many sorcerers advocate the eradication of the evil stereotype for certain considerations. religious regarding modern witchcraft that we will see later in the section related to the phenomenon in today’s world.
The term is related to magic, which is defined as the art of producing events that go against what we consider natural acts or laws.
Magic by itself has no negative or positive connotations; it all depends on the context: if you are talking about witchcraft, satanism, occultism, etc., it goes without saying that the term is negative there; While if you talk about fairies, fantastic creatures, magicians of the courts of the ancient kings and epic in general, there the term has positive connotations.
There may even be contexts in which the term magic has both connotations at the same time, as is the case of the Harry Potter saga, where some wizards and witches practice white or good magic, and those who practice black magic or bad.
In such contexts, these differentiating terms are usually used, generally dichotomous, such as white-black, light-dark, angelic-demonic, good-bad magic …
The word witch, besides, is not usually exclusive to a single type of character as the classic Halloween witch could be, it can also be used to refer to healers and shamans of tribes or rural towns (in this case with the word witch, in masculine), or also to refer to the practitioners of some neo-pagan religions or cults with magical overtones such as the African or Romani religions. As for what witches do, the terms used are varied, although they are usually seen as synonyms: spells, hexes, spells, enchantments …
Magical thinking has been around almost forever
Witchcraft has probably been around since humans first formed into groups. The sense of the use of magic in ordinary people, such as the belief in the power of words and sentences, can be found in all ancient societies.
Some prehistoric works of art depict magical rites for areas of life spell, love spell, such as hunting, in addition to the usual religious rites that were dedicated to primitive deities.
Shamanism, which is about communicating with the spirit world through jobs, dreams, and meditative trance, is probably the oldest religion.
There was already witchcraft in the ancient Sumerian civilization; specifically, in Babylon began the elaborate the demonological study, because its mythology was quite rich. The Sumerians believed that the world was full of spirits and that most of them were hostile.
Each person was supposed to have a spirit that would protect him from demons and enemies, plus a diverse array of magic spells and amulets that he could use in defense against them.
In ancient Egypt, witches used their wisdom about magic amulets, spells, and concoctions to twist cosmic powers in their favor or in favor of their clients, who in this case was those belonging to the political class. Since then, witchcraft has been used for a commercial purpose, as is often done today.
For their part, the Greeks had their own form of magic whose concept revolved around a kind of religious cult known as Theurgy, which consisted of the practice of rituals to invoke the action of the gods and other entities belonging to the plane divine.
Another inferior form of magic was Mageia (etymological origin of the word the magic that we use in Latin languages), which was closer to hidden witchcraft and was practiced by individuals who claimed to have knowledge and powers to help certain people or to harm their enemies.
At the end of the Golden Age, during the height of the Mycenaean Civilization, the Greek pantheon adopted the Carian goddess, Hecate, and gave her the title of goddess of witchcraft and Queen of ghosts, also giving her a tripled image (a three-headed woman) in its iconography.
According to myth, Hecate was the daughter of two-second generation titans, Asteria and Perses, and obtained her powers as a gift from Zeus.
In pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican civilizations, shamanism had an important weight. Religious beliefs revolved around powerful deities who controlled natural phenomena and aspects of life itself and shamans were the people chosen as the bridge between the supernatural and incomprehensible world and the earth plane.
One of the most widely used practices in these civilizations was a human sacrifice as a payment for blood for the gods to provide prosperity in economic activity, although there was also a long tradition of making amulets and healing.
Some argue, however, that the real roots of witchcraft and magic as we envision them today stem from the Celts,a diverse group of Iron Age tribal societies that flourished between 700 BC and 100 AD in various areas of Europe.
Just as great metalworkers and magnificent artists themselves, some Celtic peoples were also profusely spiritual; their religion was pantheistic, which means that they related the divinity with certain phenomena of nature.
Around 350 BC, a priestly class known as the Druids had been developed who was in charge of predicting the future, healing, and some social aspects such as basic education and the law.
The Celts’ religious beliefs and practices, their love for the land, and their veneration for trees
(the oak in particular) became what was later known as paganism, although this label is also used for polytheistic beliefs. of the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. For centuries, mixes between Celtic beliefs and rituals from other Indo-European groups gave rise to magical practices (potion making and spells) that were collectively known as the witchcraft of the medieval period.
Magic in the Middle Ages
The earliest Christian traditions related to saints and divine relics gave rise to many forms of amulets that were allusive to magic related to early Christianity, which was used to attract and convert pagans. However, in the 5th century AD, the influential Christian theologian Saint Augustine of Hippo affirmed that everything related to magic was an invention of the devil to guide humanity away from Christian truth; He also argued that neither Satan nor the witches could have any real supernatural power or might be able to effectively invoke magic. of any kind, that it was a “mistake of the heathen” to believe in any other supernatural power than that of God. Therefore, if witches were given as powerless, the Church saw no need to deal with their spells or bother to track them. In fact, it was like this for a long time:
Between the 8th and 9th centuries several characters dismissed their own belief in witches, such as the influential Bishop Agobardo de Lyon repudiated the belief that witches could rain, fly at night or change their shape;
There was also Saint Boniface, who said that one’s belief in witches was anti-Christian. For his part, Charlemagne, King of the Franks prohibited the burning of the supposed witches because he considered it a pagan practice.
But at the same time, the Church was beginning to influence civil law to create laws against witchcraft and to establish the Latin word “maleficium”, which originally meant doing evil, giving derogatory and satanic connotations to magical practices.
Magic became a crime against society and heresy against God. The Leptinnes Council of 744 drew up a list of superstitions prohibiting sacrifices on behalf of the saints and requiring the renunciation of demon worship (referring to the ancient Norse gods’ Thor and Odin) as part of the Christian baptism ceremony (remember that there was once a relationship between Norse mythology and Christianity when the latter came to northern Europe).
In medieval tradition, the Tempestarii was a magician who dwelt among ordinary people and who had the power to create or prevent storms at will. Anyone reputed as such was the object of respect, fear, or hatred in rural areas.
Church authorities credited the belief by saying that God allowed the devil and witches to carry out these acts as a punishment for evil in the world. Still, the Church banned superstitious remedies against witchcraft such as storm-dissipating spells and protective amulets, and brought before them prescribed prayer, the sacraments, and the invocation of the name of God.
Before the 13th and 14th centuries, witchcraft, beyond what people believed, had come to mean a set of beliefs and practices that included spell healing, ointments, and concoctions; he barely ventured into the supernatural through divination and clairvoyance.
In the 13th century, some cults related to pagan beliefs and rituals became directly satanic. Around the year 1208, Pope Innocent III began a persecution of a group of religious heretics are known as the Cathars, who believed in a universe where God and Satan were entities of equal power that were at odds; In that sense, God had created the essence and the heavens, while the Devil had created the Earth and the the material world, a belief similar to that of the 1st century Gnostics. The Church discredited the Cathars by spreading stories about Devil worship rituals and this gave rise to a series of conflicts that led to a crusade against heresy.
The end of this conflict came with the extermination of practically all the Cathars in 1229. The Inquisition also originated from this, whose objective was to search for and punish the few remaining Cathar heretics and compel them through torture to change their beliefs or else murder them.
Pope Gregory IX assigned the Dominican Order the duty to lead the Inquisition, it could act on its behalf and with full authority, but it was not until 1252 when Pope Innocent IV expressly authorized the use of torture among the accused. Over time, both Christian churches and secular (non-religious) organizations worked together to persecute witches.
Also in the 13th century, the leading Christian theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas argued that the world was full of evil and dangerous demons who were trying to lead people down the path of temptation, and thus began to associate witchcraft with sex.
What Do I Need To Know About Buying Second-Hand Equipment?
You should know that any second-hand equipment bought for use at work might not be safe. Beware of the intended use of the equipment and get the operator’s handbook, especially for complex machines such as potato harvesters, telescopic handlers, and tractors.
Here is a checklist of what to look for when buying industrial parts. With this checklist, you should be able to identify any of the common defects on agricultural machines.
• Are there any defective or missing guards for the dangerous parts such as chopping mechanisms, cutters, pulleys, belts, rotating shafts or sprockets?
• Are there defective or missing stand-off guards for tines, pick-ups or blades?
• Are the guard fastenings unsuitable or poorly maintained especially those covering power transmission parts such as PTO shafts?
• Are the safety devices such as emergency stops damaged or working poorly?
• Are the controls and their functions poorly labelled?
• Is there lack of proper access to the operator’s position?
• Are the instructions, decals and warning signs hard to read or poorly translated in foreign languages?
Some of the health and safety concerns on agricultural machinery include the following.
• Tractors with damaged/missing cabs or those lacking rollover protective structures
• Potato harvesters with poorly guarded haulm and cleaning rollers
• Power harrows with damaged, inadequate or missing stand-off guards
• Sprayers lacking chemical induction systems, protective clothing lockers or emergency clean water containers
5 Effective Strategies to Get Your Music Noticed
With so many talented and famous musicians around, it is not easy to make the name of oneself in the music industry. Writing lyrics, composing music, and giving a final touch to the song sounds like an easy task, but the real challenge comes when you need to promote it. The musicians begin each song is with the several questions in their mind, will I be able to make my music heard? Can my song track be the next hit in the music industry? Making music is an emotional and personal activity; therefore, sharing with others and promoting it seems like a foreign and forced concept. Unless you plan to keep it secret, it’s okay not to market it, but if you want to stand out in the music industry, then you have to sell it at any cost.
As much of a daunting task promotion appears to be internet has made it pretty easier. This, however, goes without saying your primary focus must be on creating terrific music. Even if your marketing is quintessential, if your music is not up to the mark, you will not be able to stick out. Marketing your music is essential, especially if you wish to get your name out there or you like getting recognized and famous. If you are one of those who loves attention and waiting for the time when your audience comes to you for a selfie, then it’s crucial to promote your work first. Doing nothing will not get you anywhere, and your music will stay with you only. So it’s time you take matters in your hand and follow these effective strategies of music promotion to get your music heard. Let’s make you famous!
1.Social Media Presence
As a music artist, all you want is the utmost spotlight on our work, and social media is the best source of promoting your work for free of cost. Your social media’s smart presence is undoubtedly the best way to nurture your audience and fill your gigs. Make the best use of the pinned posts on your twitter account.
Your header is the first thing that your visitors notice when they stalk your profile, so why not take advantage of this free space? Put up a genteel and striking post to keep your visitors entertained and hooked on your profile. Apart from your gorgeous face, your Instagram stories and posts must cabaret your music talent as well. To enhance your post engagements, make sure you are making the right use of all the hashtags as they are the best source of attracting the audience. Take the full advantage of the sound cloud and other musical applications as well; put up your music videos and audios on your social media to attract the most audience.
2.Take advantage of radio
As basic and hoary the medium of communication radio is, consulting hip hop radio promotion companies like Caliboy Music is still one the best source of promoting your music. It is all about audio calls and music, and people always look for the radio jockey recommendations when they are in search of new music. Radio will help you reach a new wave of fans and maybe some fans can lead you to the sponsor of your next track as well.
Pro tip: prior to sending your song for promotion, be sure you have attained the copyright of your song and get your music registered with the right performance organization. It will help you get paid gigs, what more do we want than getting paid for something we love to do? It’s like a dream come true.
Get your music featured in the top music blog posts. The blog post reviews of your music can get you a timely and massive range of the audience. Reach out to the famous bloggers for the music review by writing them a precise yet comprehensive email. Once you have gotten it reviewed, make sure you appreciate their help and thank them for their support, as you may need their service in the future as well.
On the other hand, you can start a blog post as well. Narrate your music journey and the scuffles that you faced up till now. It will not only help you grow, but you will be able to motivate a struggling artist as well. Or maybe some renowned music artist stumble upon your post and contact you for his next duet?
4.Do not be a musician only
The key to excelling in this world is to be a multi-tasker; being a musician alone means you have to take third party help for your promotional activities. It is a costly procedure, and you have to rely entirely on someone else for your job, which is quite risky. If you want more exposure, be more than a musician, be a writer for your blog posts, and marketer for your promotion. Being a complete package today is what gets you to the highest stage of your career.
Do not just make music, but inspire others through your music journey. Talk more about social issues and how you, as a musician, can contribute to society’s betterment. As a musician, you have a huge social responsibility. So it is advisable to take advantage of your public presence and contribute to the CSR activities.
5.Share behind the screen stories
The best way to create a hype among your fans and get instant fame is to share your backstage pictures and videos. As creepy as it sounds, fans are more interested in their favorite celebrities’ personal life than their art. So make sure you share your own but not to private or controversial stories on your social media. The musicians must realize their fans will not think for a second before canceling them if they mess up so they should a little cautious.
Access to the audience has become much easier today. However, the competition out there is pretty fierce, so make sure you develop eye-catching strategies to move up in the world.
BLACK FEMALE CEO LAUNCHES Axis™ HEMP IN A CAP
BLACK FEMALE CEO LAUNCHES Axis™ HEMP IN A CAP BEVERAGE BRAND WITH UNIQUE PATENT TO COMBAT MOTHERS CANCER TREATMENTS Axis™ Hemp in A Cap Innovation Powered by VesslTechnologyTM
PHOENIX – (November 2, 2020) – Ja-nice Johnson, Founder and CEO of Axis™ Hemp in A Cap, has launched the now leading Hemp Infused Beverage brand nationwide. The innovative patent stemmed from necessity as the CEO was in search of various Cannabinoid treatments to administer to her mother battling Stage 4 Cancer. After tedious efforts of mixing products to aid to her mother’s treatments, Ja-nice then acquired the license to the unique Vessl™ technology to incorporate into beverages and is now leading the market with her innovation.
Vessl™- the company who provides its unique patent, recently announced their partnership with GRAMMY® Award-winning singer, songwriter, Miguel who also serves as a Corporate Ambassador and Advisor for the brand. The patented bottle closure provides instant and pressurized mixing of the beverage with alkaline water immediately prior to use. With this technology the premium quality 6oz Hemp beverage holds and protects 25mg of hemp extract and flavor to provide the best all-natural ready-to-drink Hemp cocktail. No sugars, no calories, packed with electrolytes, B & C Vitamins and Zinc to rehydrate and boost your immune system.
Axis™ has now developed a product line of four (4) Hemp infused beverages: Triple Berry Daiquiri, Strawberry Daiquiri, Lemon Drop Daiquiri and Mighty Mango Daiquiri.
Supporting medical studies continue to show the numerous benefits of a cannabinoid alleviating neuropathic pain, inflammation, anxiety and more. Furthermore, athletes have taken to this wave utilizing it post workout to alleviate sore muscles. No matter your preference of use, Johnson wants consumers to know, “Every sip is a tribute to those surviving, fighting, or anyone loss to this illness.”
A company committed to diversity with a model of inclusion, Axis is minority owned and operated in addition to being LGBTQ+ inclusive. Recent studies have shown that black women-owned businesses represented the highest rate of growth of any group over the last five years, deemed necessity entrepreneurs starting businesses out of necessity and innovation. Axis™ has been diligent in becoming a leading company, working to create and ease the burden for those battling cancer, post workout recovery, and health enthusiast who understand the health benefits of Cannabinoid use and with that Johnson is a reminder that these Black Female Entrepreneurs are changing the game.
Where to buy: www.twisttoaxis.com
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