A drug screen is a test used to detect the presence of drugs in a person’s body. Drug screens are commonly used by employers to test employees for drug use, and by law enforcement agencies to test suspects for drug use. Drug screens can also be used to test athletes for banned substances, and to test patients for compliance with their medication regimens. Even though drug screens are common, many people do not know how they work or what they test for. In this article, we will answer some common questions about drug screens.
What is drug screening?
Drug screening is the process of testing for the presence of drugs in a person’s body. It can be used to detect illegal drugs, prescription drugs, and other substances. Drug screening is often used as part of a pre-employment background check or for probationary drug testing. Everything from a 12 panel drug test to a standard 5-panel drug test can be used for drug screening. Not only does it test for different types of drugs, but also the frequency of drug use.
Additionally, drug screening can be used to test for the presence of drugs in a person’s environment. This can be done through the use of drug-sniffing dogs or by testing for traces of drugs in a person’s home or car. This way of drug screening is often used in cases where there is suspected drug activity. Not to mention, environmental drug screening can also be used to test for the presence of drugs in a person’s body.
There are a variety of drugs that can be screened for in a drug test. The most common drugs that are screened for include: marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, opiates, PCP, and alcohol. However, there are many other drugs that can be included in a drug screen depending on the specific test being used. Some of the other drugs that may be screened for include: barbiturates, benzodiazepines, methadone, tricyclic antidepressants, and propoxyphene.
Keep in mind that not all drug tests are created equal. The specific drugs that are screened for may vary depending on the type of test being used. For example, some tests may only screen for the presence of illegal drugs, while others may also include prescription and over-the-counter medications.
There are two main types of drug screens: urine tests and hair follicle tests.
Urine Tests: A urine test is the most common type of drug screen. It is usually done at a lab or collection site. The person being tested will be asked to provide a sample of their urine in a cup or container. The urine will then be tested for the presence of drugs or alcohol.
Hair Follicle Tests: A hair follicle test is less common than a urine test, but it can be used to detect drugs that have been used over a longer period of time. This type of test is usually done at a lab. A small sample of hair will be taken from the person being tested and then analyzed for the presence of drugs or alcohol.
Additionally, there are some drug screens that can be done at home. These tests usually involve a urine sample and can be purchased at most pharmacies. Not only will these tests save you time and money, but they will also give you the peace of mind of knowing that your results are private and confidential.
When it comes to drug screens, how long results take can vary depending on the type of test being performed. For instance, a urine test is usually the most common and quickest method, with results generally taking 24-48 hours. Blood tests may take a bit longer, with results typically coming back within 2-5 days. And finally, hair follicle tests may take the longest out of all three options, with results often taking up to two weeks to come back.
Also, keep in mind that it may take a little longer for results to come back if your test is sent to a certified laboratory for confirmation. That being said, most drug tests these days are performed on-site, so you shouldn’t have to wait too long to get your results. Plus, your employer will usually let you know ahead of time what type of test they’ll be conducting, so you can know exactly how long it will take to get your results. Keep in mind that you can also call and check on your results if you’re worried about the status of your drug test.
False positives and false negatives can occur with any type of drug test. A false positive occurs when a substance is incorrectly identified as being present when it is not. This can happen if the test is not performed correctly, or if the person being tested has been exposed to a substance that can cause a false positive result. A false negative occurs when a substance is incorrectly identified as not being present when it actually is. This can happen if the test is not performed correctly, or if the person being tested has been exposed to a substance that can cause a false negative result.
For example, if a person uses a drug that is not on the list of drugs tested for, they may still get a false positive result. Similarly, if a person uses a drug that is on the list of drugs tested for, but does not have enough of the drug in their system to trigger a positive result, they may still get a false negative result.
There you have it! Everything you need to know about drug screens. If you are ever faced with the prospect of having to take one, hopefully, this article has given you some peace of mind and helped you prepare for what to expect. The bottom line is that drug screens are nothing to stress about, as long as you know what you’re being tested for and how the test works.
Khalil ur Rehman is a proud born and raised in Abbottabad. Khalil has worked as a journalist for nearly a decade having contributed to several large publications including the Yahoo News and The Verge. As a journalist for The Hear Up, Khalil covers climate and science news. [email protected]
Is red light therapy effective for rosacea? | A Review of the Evidence
Red light therapy is well-studied for things like wound healing, inflammation, collagen production, and various related skin conditions including rosacea. Acne rosacea is a common inflammatory skin condition affecting mainly the central face. Its typical manifestations are generalized erythema, telangiectasia, edema, papules, pustules, or a combination of all. In 2004, the National Rosacea Society (NRS) Expert Committee published a report on the classification and staging of rosacea that gives a definition of rosacea. Four subtypes of rosacea can be recognized on the basis of different morphological characteristics. It’s usually benign, but it can be quite frustrating for those who suffer from it. This blog will explore the available research on red light therapy for rosacea and make a decision about whether or not red light therapy is effective for the treatment of this skin condition.
What is rosacea? Symptoms and causes
Rosacea often starts with a tendency to flush and blush frequently. In time, persistent areas of redness appear on the cheeks and nose. The chin, forehead, and neck can also be affected. Tiny blood vessels may be visible. There may be inflamed, red bumps and pimples (papules and pustules) on the cheeks, chin, or forehead. The skin is often very sensitive and may feel dry, rough, or swollen.
Causes of rosacea:
The exact pathology of rosacea is still unknown, but there are various reasons to trigger the breakout, such as an overactive immune system, heredity, environmental factors, or a combination of these. Second flare-ups might be triggered by hot drinks and spicy foods, alcoholic beverages, temperature extremes, the sun, emotions, exercise, drugs that dilate blood vessels, and cosmetic products.
The four subtypes of rosacea are recognized on the basis of different morphological features: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular. The erythematotelangiectatic subtype is the most common one, followed by papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular types, which are reported as less common. Clinical data showed that patients often harbor more than one rosacea subtype.
Clinical studies on the efficacy of red light therapy for rosacea
Red light therapy is a type of phototherapy that uses red LED lights to treat rosacea. Clinical studies have shown that this treatment is effective in reducing the symptoms of rosacea, and previous research has also reported the efficacy of red and blue lights for rosacea. Blue light (400–470 nm), due to its lower penetration, is useful in such skin conditions related to the epidermis layer of the skin, and thus it is able to interfere with human sebocytes proliferation, while red light (630 nm) is reported to have a significant effect on sebum production. Moreover, one study on rosacea-like mouse skin reported the efficacy of LED at 630 and 940 nm on the down-regulation of key inflammatory mediators in rosacea.
LED red light therapy interacts with the immune system
There is reported evidence of the efficacy of LED therapy in its interaction with the skin microbiome, and this could also have a significant impact on the etiopathogenesis of rosacea through immune response modulation. The microbial unbalance of the skin microbiota has been linked to rosacea clinical manifestations, even though the direct correlation is still under investigation. Authors reported the role of intestinal dysbiosis in promoting inflammation and impairment of normal lymphocyte function, potentially perpetuating chronic, low-grade inflammation. A higher incidence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was observed when patients with rosacea were compared to controls.
LED red light therapy interacts with sebum secretion
In comparison with blue light, the red light wavelengths penetrate more deeply into tissue, and it has been shown that red light can affect the sebum secretion of sebaceous glands and keratinocyte behaviors, as concluded in this study. The true function of these glands has yet to be investigated, but there are some proposed theories, including those regarding antioxidant effects, antibacterial effects, and the transport of pheromones. It is not unusual for the skin of a patient with rosacea to have increased or enlarged oil glands, which are called sebaceous hyperplasia. This glandular enlargement and oily skin seem to develop and progress unless the rosacea is treated.
LED red light therapy for inflammation
Red light also has anti-inflammatory properties through its influence on cytokine production by macrophages, as demonstrated in this experiment. Therapeutic approaches to rosacea focused on symptom suppression by means of anti-inflammatory agents such as doxycycline. Red light therapy can address inflammatory diseases as an alternative to conventional treatments. As one treatment that hits the core of rosacea symptoms, red light therapy dramatically helps reduce the appearance of facial redness, flushing, and telangiectasia.
Clinical cases for rosacea
There are some important references that verified the effectiveness of red light therapy for rosacea. In this study, there are two cases of clinical trials that used red light therapy to treat rosacea.
Case 1: A 22-year-old Caucasian woman with a 5-year history of pink eruptions on her nose. She was diagnosed as having papulopustular rosacea subtype, moderate grade. A combined and sequential plan of blue (480 nm ± 15 nm, 300 J/minute) and red
(650 ± 15 nm, 100 J/minute) LED therapy regimen was planned for 15 minutes per trial, twice a week for a total of ten sessions through a quasi-monochromatic 120 LED system. The improvement result is shown in the following picture.
Case 2: A 68-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 7-year history of papulopustular rosacea, moderate grade, was submitted to LED therapy twice a week for a total of ten sessions, through a LED system of blue (480 nm ± 15 nm, 300 J/minute) and red (650 ± 15 nm, 300 J/minute) with sequential irradiation for 15 minutes.
Lastly, in this study patients subjective to the photodynamic therapy of red light therapy alone observed that clinical inflammatory lesions disappeared completely in all patients after 24 weeks. The lesions were irradiated with 100 mW/cm2, 80-90 J/cm2, LED red light (635 ± 15 nm) over 15 min in each session with four sessions at 10-day intervals.
Why choose Bestqool red light therapy devices?
Red light therapy is a treatment that uses red and near-infrared light to treat various skin conditions. Research has shown that using red light therapy can reduce the appearance of rosacea symptoms in some people. There are different types of devices available, so it’s important to choose the one that is right for you.
Choose a true medical-grade light therapy device
Bestqool red light therapy devices are FDA-registered to ensure medical-grade treatment. A medical-grade red light therapy device should be qualified from the following points: 1) The highest safety standards in the medical field, 2) The medical effectiveness of irradiance and wavelengths output, and 3) Efficacy and efficiency for treatments. Bestqool products are able to provide the most effective narrow band of red (at 660 nm) and near-infrared (at 830 nm) wavelengths, with a high level of irradiance by our advanced LED technology. A high level of irradiance as high as 100 mW/cm^2 as the direct output determines the efficacy and efficiency of light therapy treatment. Using 10 minutes of Bestqool products is equal to using 20 minutes of others.
Blue light therapy for rosacea
Numerous studies use a combinational light to treat rosacea, which shows a better result than using red light therapy alone. Blue light therapy also has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties which can enhance the effect of red light therapy. Bestqool also provides light therapy masks with a combination of red, near-infrared, and blue lights for patients with facial rosacea symptoms. Consult with your physician before making the optimal choice for you.
Hamza Fazal is a reporter for The Hear UP. After graduating from the University of Abbottabad, Hamza got an internship at the NPR and worked as a reporter and producer. Hamza has also worked as a reporter for the Medium. Hamza covers health and science for The Hear UP.